Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp 1328–1333 | Cite as

Self-Reported Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetes-Related Eye Disease in Jews and Arabs in Israel

  • Inbar ZuckerEmail author
  • Hadar Arditi-Babchuk
  • Teena Enav
  • Tamar Shohat
Original Paper


Prevalence rates of diabetes and its complications may be higher in minorities. We assessed these rates in Jews and Arabs living in Israel. Data were pooled from the first and second Israeli national health interview surveys. 9625 Jews and 2401 Arabs participated in the analysis. The age adjusted rate of self-reported diabetes was 10.7 % among Arabs and 5.7 % among Jews [odds ratio (OR) 2.14, 95 % confidence interval 1.77–2.60]. After adjustment for risk factors the OR decreased to 1.28 (95 % CI 1.04–1.59). The rate of self-reported diabetes-related eye disease was 37.6 % among Arabs with diabetes and 18.3 % among Jews (OR 2.69, 95 % CI 1.84–3.93). After adjustment the odds among Arabs were still double that of Jews (OR 2.26, 95 % CI 1.44–3.56). Self-reported type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related eye disease were higher among Arabs. Multi-disciplinary and cultural sensitive approach is required in order to improve diabetes care among the Arab population.


Diabetes Eye-disease Complication Minority Survey 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study formal consent is not required.


  1. 1.
    Parvez H, Kawar B, El Nahas M. Obesity and diabetes in the developing world—a growing challenge. New Engl J Med. 2007;356:213–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wild S, et al. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1047–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cox M, et al. Locality deprivation and type 2 diabetes incidence: a local test of relative inequalities. Soc Sci Med. 2007;65:1953–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rabi DM, et al. Association of the socio-economic status with diabetes prevalence and utilization of diabetes care services. BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:124–30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carter JS, Pugh JA, Monterrosa A. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in minorities in the United States. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125:221–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Osborn CY, de Groot M, Wagner JA. Racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes complications in the northeastern United States: the role of socioeconomic status. J Natl Med Assoc. 2013;105:51–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mayers-JDC-Brookdale Institute. The Arab population in Israel: facts and figures 2012. Last accessed 15 July 2014.
  8. 8.
    Abou-Rbiah Y, Weitzman S. Diabetes among Bedouins in the Negev: the transition from a rare to highly prevalent condition. Isr Med Assoc J. 2002;4:687–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cohen AD, et al. Diabetes control in the Bedouin population in southern Israel. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11:376–80.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kalter-Leibovici O, et al. Adult-onset diabetes among Arabs and Jews in Israel: a population based study. Diabet Med. 2012;29:748–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wilf-Miron R, et al. Disparities in diabetes care: role of the patient’s socio-demographic characteristics. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:729–36.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chorny A, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients in Jewish and Bedouin populations in southern Israel. Harefuah. 2011;150:906–10 (Hebrew).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Klein R, et al. The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy: III. Prevalence and risk of diabetic retinopathy when age at diagnosis is 30 or more. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984;102:527–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alhyas L, McKay A, Majeed A. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the States of the co-operation council for the Arab States of the Gulf: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2012;7:e40948.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jaber LA, et al. Lack of acculturation is a risk factor for diabetes in Arab immigrants in the US. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:2010–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Signorello LB, et al. Comparing diabetes prevalence between African American and Whites of similar socioeconomic status. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:2260–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    LaVeist TA, et al. Environmental and socio-economic factors as contributors to racial disparities in diabetes prevalence. J Gen Intern Med. 2009;24:1144–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Al-Daghri NM, et al. Assessing the contribution of 38 genetic loci to the risk of type 2 diabetes in the Saudi Arabian population. Clin Endocrinol. 2014;80:532–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ereqat S, et al. Association of a common variant in TCF7L2 gene with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Palestinian population. Acta Diabetol. 2010;47(Suppl 1):195–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sivaprasad S, et al. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in various ethnic groups: a worldwide perspective. Surv Ophthalmol. 2012;57:347–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li Y, et al. Asian American/Pacific Islander paradox in diabetic retinopathy: findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2006–2008. Ethn Dis. 2010;20:111–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Emanuele N, et al. Ethnicity, race, and baseline retinopathy correlates in the veteran’s affairs diabetes trial. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:1954–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Harris MI, et al. Is the risk of diabetic retinopathy greater in non-hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans than in non-hispanic whites with type 2 diabetes? A US population study. Diabetes Care. 1998;21:1230–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wong TY, et al. for the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Diabetic retinopathy in a multi-ethnic cohort in the United States. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141:446–55.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Central Bureau of Statistics. Statistical Abstract of Israel. No 56. Ed. Jerusalem: Central Bureau of Statistics, The State of Israel. 2005.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ministry of health publication No 249. Israeli National Health Interview Survey (INHIS-1) 2003–4 selected findings. 2006.
  27. 27.
    Ministry of health publication No 331. Israeli National Health Interview Survey (INHIS-2) 2007–10; selected findings. 2012.
  28. 28.
    Okura T, et al. Agreement between self-report questionnaires and medical record data was substantial for diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke but not for heart failure. J Clin Epidemiol. 2004;57:1096–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Manor O, et al. National program for quality indicators in community healthcare in israel report, 2007–2009. Jerusalem: Hebrew University—Hadassah, Israel Ministry of Health and Israel National Institute for Health Policy and Health Services Research. 2011.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inbar Zucker
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hadar Arditi-Babchuk
    • 1
  • Teena Enav
    • 1
  • Tamar Shohat
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Israel Center for Diseases ControlMinistry of HealthTel HashomerIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Sackler School of MedicineTel Aviv UniversityTel-AvivIsrael

Personalised recommendations