Individual and Contextual Factors Associated with Immigrant Youth Feeling Unsafe in School: A Social-Ecological Analysis
- 889 Downloads
Despite the increasing proportion of immigrant youth in U.S. school districts, no studies have investigated their perceptions of their school. This study examines factors associated with perceptions of school safety among immigrant youth within individual, family, peer, and school contexts. Data were drawn from Wave II of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (n = 4288) and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted. African–Americans, females, and youth with limited English proficiency were more likely to perceive their school as unsafe. Youth who reported that family cohesion was important and those who had close friends perceived their school as safe. Also, those who experienced illegal activities in school reported feeling unsafe. Assessment and intervention in schools needs to consider individual and contextual factors associated with perceptions of school safety. Additional research is needed to examine individual and contextual factors related to immigrant youths’ perceptions of school.
KeywordsImmigration Safety School Social-ecological framework Youth
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Because Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS) is a publicly available dataset, which does not allow for identification of the participants, the present study was exempted from Institutional Review Board oversight.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Because CILS is a publicly available dataset, there are no ethical issues with regards to human participants/animals in the present study.
Because CILS is a publicly available dataset, there are no ethical issues with regards to informed consent in the present study.
- 1.Anderson DC. Curriculum, culture and community: the challenge of school violence. In: Tonry M, Moore M, editors. Youth violence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1998. p. 317–63.Google Scholar
- 2.Lockwood D. Violence among middle school and high school students: analysis and implications for prevention. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice; 1997.Google Scholar
- 3.Robers S, Kemp J, Rathbun A, Morgan RE: Indicators of school crime and safety (NCES 2014-042/NCJ 243299). Washington DC: National Center for Educational Statistics. US Department of Education and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, US Department of Justice; 2014.Google Scholar
- 5.United States Census Bureau. Current population survey. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau, Population Division; 2012.Google Scholar
- 7.Bogard M. Strengthening domestic violence theories: intersections of race, class, sexual orientation, and gender J Marriage. Fam Ther. 1999;25:275–89.Google Scholar
- 20.Allen JP, Land D. Attachment in adolescence. In: Cassidy J, Shaver PR, editors. Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications. New York: Guilford Press; 1999. p. 319–35.Google Scholar
- 22.Brown BB. Peer groups and peer cultures. In: Feldman SS, Elliot GR, editors. At the threshold: the developing adolescent. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1990. p. 171–96.Google Scholar
- 27.Juvonen J, Le VN, Kaganoff T, Augustine C, Constant L. Focus on the wonder years: challenges facing the American Middle School. Santa Monica, CA: RAND; 2004.Google Scholar
- 31.Bachman R, Gunter WD, Bakken NW. Predicting feelings of school safety for lower, middle, and upper school students: a gender specific analysis. Appl Psych Crim Jus. 2011;7:59–76.Google Scholar
- 32.Kingery PM, Coggeshall MB, Alford AA. Violence at school: recent evidence from four national surveys. Psychol Sch. 1998;35:247–58. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6807(199807)35:3<247:AID-PITS5>3.0.CO;2-K.Google Scholar
- 33.Jaycox LH, Stein BD, Kataoka SH, Wong M, Fink A, Escudero P, Zaragoza C. Violence exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depressive symptoms among recent immigrant schoolchildren. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002;41:1104–10. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200209000-00011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 35.Portes A, Rumbaut RG: Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), 1991–2006 (ICPSR20520.v2 ed.). Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research; 1991. doi: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR20520.v2.
- 37.McLachlan GJ, Krishnan T, Ng SK. The EM algorithm (No. 2004, 24). Center for Applied Statistics and Economics: Papers/Humboldt-Universtat. Berlin; 2004.Google Scholar
- 45.Craig S, Hull K, Haggart AG, Perez-Selles M. Promoting cultural competence through teacher assistance teams. Teach Exc Child. 2000;32:6–12.Google Scholar
- 46.Ming K, Dukes C. Fostering cultural competence through school-based routines. Multicult Ed. 2006;14:42–8.Google Scholar
- 49.Li G. What do parents think? Middle-class Chinese immigrant parents’ perspectives on literacy, learning, homework, and school-home communication. Sch Comm J. 2006;16:27–46.Google Scholar
- 52.Trauma and Learning Policy Initiative: Safe and supportive schools. 2014. Available at: https://doi.org/traumasensitiveschools.org/get-involved/safe-and-supportive-schools/.