Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp 1906–1910 | Cite as

The Impact of Education and Socioeconomic and Occupational Conditions on Self-Perceived and Mental Health Inequalities Among Immigrants and Native Workers in Spain

  • Ana CayuelaEmail author
  • Davide Malmusi
  • María José López-Jacob
  • Mercè Gotsens
  • Elena Ronda
Brief Communication


There is limited evidence on the influence of social determinants on the self-perceived and mental health of immigrants settled at least 8 years in Spain. The aim of this study was to examine differences between workers related to migrant-status, self-perceived and mental health, and to assess their relationship to occupational conditions, educational level and occupational social class, stratified by sex. Using data from the Spanish National Health Survey of 2011/12, we computed prevalence, odds ratios and explicative fractions. Mental (OR 2.02; CI 1.39–2.93) and self-perceived health (OR 2.64; CI 1.77–3.93) were poorer for immigrant women compared to natives. Occupational social class variable contributes 25 % to self-perceived health OR in immigrant women. Settled immigrant women workers are a vulnerable group in Spain.


Occupational health Immigrants Workers Health inequalities 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Ronda Pérez E, Benavides FG, Levecque K, Love JG, Felt E, Van Rossem R. Differences in working conditions and employment arrangements among migrant and non-migrant workers in Europe. Ethn Health. 2012;17(6):563–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dunlavy AC, Rostila M. Health Inequalities among workers with a foreign background in Sweden: do working conditions matter? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10(7):2871–87.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    National Statistics Institute Internet. 2014.
  4. 4.
    Jackson C. The General Health Questionnaire. Occup Med (Lond). 2007;57(1):79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Migrants in Europe. 2011 Edition. Eurostat.PDF [Internet]. 2014.
  6. 6.
    Domingo-Salvany A, Bacigalupe A, Carrasco JM, Espelt A, Ferrando J, Borrell C, et al. Proposals for social class classification based on the Spanish National Classification of Occupations 2011 using neo-Weberian and neo-Marxist approaches. Gac Sanit. 2013;27(3):263–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bones Rocha K, Pérez K, Rodríguez-Sanz M, Borrell C, Obiols JE. Prevalence of mental health problems and their association with socioeconomic, work and health variables: findings from the Spain National Health Survey. Psicothema. 2010;22(3):389–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Villarroel N, Artazcoz L. Heterogeneous patterns of health status among immigrants in Spain. Health Place. 2012;18(6):1282–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Malmusi D, Borrell C, Benach J. Migration-related health inequalities: showing the complex interactions between gender, social class and place of origin. Soc Sci Med. 2010;71(9):1610–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carrasco C, Serrano García C. Inmigración y mercado de trabajo [Immigration and work market]. Informe 2011. Madrid: OPI, Observatorio Permanente de la Inmigración, MTAS. 2011.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sousa E, Agudelo-Suarez A, Benavides FG, Schenker M, Garcia AM, Benach J, et al. Immigration, work and health in Spain: the influence of legal status and employment contract on reported health indicators. Int J Public Health. 2010;55(5):443–51.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CISAL, Research Centre in Occupational HealthParc Recerca Biomedica de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Public Health AreaAlicante UniversityAlicanteSpain
  3. 3.Centre for Biomedical Network Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP)BarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Agència de Salut Pública de BarcelonaBiomedical Research Institute Sant PauBarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Unitat Docent de Medicina Preventiva i Salut Pública PSMAR-UPF-ASPBBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations