Health Care Experiences and Perceived Barriers to Health Care Access: A Qualitative Study Among African Migrants in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China
- 647 Downloads
Guangzhou, one of China’s largest cities and a main trading port in South China, has attracted many African businessmen and traders migrating to the city for financial gains. Previous research has explored the cultural and economic roles of this newly emerging population; however, little is known about their health care experiences while in China. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were used to assess health care experiences and perceived barriers to health care access among African migrants in Guangzhou, China. Overall, African migrants experienced various barriers to accessing health care and were dissatisfied with local health services. The principal barriers to care reported included affordability, legal issues, language barriers, and cultural differences. Facing multiple barriers, African migrants have limited access to care in Guangzhou. Local health settings are not accustomed to the African migrant population, suggesting that providing linguistically and culturally appropriate services may improve access to care for the migrants.
KeywordsAfrican China Health care access Health care experiences Immigrants/migrants
The authors would like to thank the Guangzhou African community leaders, Ojukwu Emma and Sultane Barry, for organizing community events. The authors would also like to thank the African migrants in Guangzhou for their time and effort. Preparation of this article was supported in part by grants from the NIH FIC (1K01TW008200-01A3) and Emory Center for AIDS Research (P30 AI050409; Wong and Nehl).
Conflict of interest
The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
- 1.International Organization for migration about migration: facts & figures. 2010. http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/about-migration/facts-and-figures/lang/en. Accessed 15 April 2012.
- 2.International Organization for Migration. World Migration Report 2011: Communicating effectively about migration, Switzerland (2011).Google Scholar
- 6.Ku L, Freilich A. Caring for immigrants: health care safety nets in Los Angeles, New York, Miami, and Houston. The Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the uninsured (2001).Google Scholar
- 10.Jatrana S, Toyota M, Yeoh B. Migration and Health in Asia Routledge. OX: Abingdon; 2006.Google Scholar
- 11.National Bureau of Statistics of the People’s Republic of China Major figures on residents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and foreigners covered by 2010 population census. 2011. http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/newsandcomingevents/t20110429_402722638.htm. Accessed 15 April 2012.
- 13.Bodomo AB. Africans in China: a sociocultural study and its implications on Africa–China relations. Cambria Press; 2012.Google Scholar
- 14.Zhao S The China–Angola Partnership: a case study of China’s oil relations in Africa. http://www.china-briefing.com/news/2011/05/25/the-china-angola-partnership-a-case-study-of-chinas-oil-relationships-with-african-nations.html. 2011. Accessed April 16 2012.
- 15.Perlez J With $20 billion loan pledge, China strengthens its ties to African nations. The New York Times; 2012.Google Scholar
- 17.Li Z, Xue D, Lyons M, Brown A. The African enclave in Guangzhou: a case study of Xiaobeilu. J Geogr Sci. 2008;63(2):207–18.Google Scholar
- 21.GmbH VERBI. MAXQDA, software for qualitative data analysis. Germany: Berlin-Marburg-Amöneburg; 2011.Google Scholar
- 22.Babitsch B, Gohl D, von Lengerke T Re-revisiting Andersen’s behavioral model of health services use: a systematic review of studies from 1998–2011. Psychosoc Med. 2012; doi: 10.3205/psm000089.
- 24.Amnesty International People’s Republic of China: internal migrants: discrimination and abuse. The human cost of an economic ‘Miracle’. 2007. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA17/008/2007. (2012).
- 27.Cui Y, Gu L Curbing influx of illegal aliens. China Daily; 2012.Google Scholar
- 28.Chetail V, Giacca G Who cares? The right to health of migrants. In: Robinson M, Clapham A, editors. Realizing the right to health: Swiss Human Rights Book vol 3. Ruffer & Rub Pub; 2009. pp 224–234.Google Scholar
- 30.Violence against doctors: Why China? Why now? What next? Lancet 2014; 383 (9922):1013. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60501-8.
- 31.Xu Z (2013) The distortion of the doctor–patient relationship in China. http://www.sgim.org/File%20Library/SGIM/Resource%20Library/Forum/2014/Feb2014-01.pdf.
- 33.Freeman G, Lethbridge-Cejku M Access to health care among Hispanic or Latino Women: United States, 2000–2002. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ad/ad368.pdf. (2006). Accessed 16 April 2012.
- 34.The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Key facts: race, ethnicity and medical care. http://www.kff.org/minorityhealth/upload/6069-02.pdf. 2007. Accessed April 16 2012.
- 37.Anderson LM, Scrimshaw SC, Fullilove MT, Fielding JE, Normand J, Task force on community preventive S culturally competent healthcare systems. A systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2003; 24 (3 Suppl):68–79.Google Scholar