Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 1120–1129 | Cite as

A Culturally Adapted Smoking Cessation Intervention for Korean Americans: A Mediating Effect of Perceived Family Norm Toward Quitting

  • Sun S. KimEmail author
  • Seong-Ho Kim
  • Hua Fang
  • Simona Kwon
  • Donna Shelley
  • Douglas Ziedonis
Original Paper


Korean men and women have the highest current smoking rates across all Asian ethnic subgroups in the United States. This is a 2-arm randomized controlled study of a culturally adapted smoking cessation intervention. The experimental condition received eight weekly 40-min individualized counseling sessions that incorporated Korean-specific cultural elements, whereas the control condition received eight weekly 10-min individualized counseling sessions that were not culturally adapted. All participants also received nicotine patches for 8 weeks. One-hundred nine Korean immigrants (91 men and 18 women) participated in the study. The rate of biochemically verified 12-month prolonged abstinence was significantly higher for the experimental condition than the control condition (38.2 vs. 11.1 %, χ 2 = 10.7, p < 0.01). Perceived family norm significantly mediated the effect of cessation intervention on abstinence. Smoking cessation intervention for Korean Americans should be culturally adapted and involve family members to produce a long-term treatment effect.


Smoking cessation Cultural adaptation Perceived social norm Mediation analysis Korean Americans 



This work was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse ([NIDA], 5K23DA021243-02 to Dr. Kim) and partially by the NIDA (R01DA033323-01A1 to Dr. Fang).

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sun S. Kim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Seong-Ho Kim
    • 2
  • Hua Fang
    • 3
  • Simona Kwon
    • 4
  • Donna Shelley
    • 4
  • Douglas Ziedonis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Social WelfareKorean Bible UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Quantitative Health SciencesUniversity of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA
  4. 4.New York University, School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

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