Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 1240–1258 | Cite as

Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Migrant Children and Adolescents in American Countries: A Systematic Review

  • Esmahan Belhadj Kouider
  • Ute Koglin
  • Franz Petermann
Original Paper

Abstract

The present review postulates the current mental health status in migrant children and adolescents in the North American continent. 35 studies published from 2009 to 2013 chosen from a systematic literature research were included. Almost all studies were conducted in the United States and Canada. From the perspective of selection effect, migration as a risk factor was not proven. The migration process perspective could have underestimated a higher danger of problem behavior in second-generation migrant children. Comparing native and migrant children, balanced results in problem behavior were reported, but the Asian migrant group was at higher risk of developing mental disorders. Family-based risk factors were offered: high acculturation stress, low English language competence, language brokering, discrepancies in children’s and parent’s cultural orientation, the non-Western cultural orientation, e.g., collectivistic, acceptance feelings of parents, or harsh parenting. However, the importance to support migrant families in the acculturation process becomes apparent.

Keywords

Emotional and behavioral problems Migration Children Adolescents Review 

References

  1. 1.
    Cunningham SA, Ruben JD, Narayan KMV. Health of foreign-born people in the United States: a review. Health Place. 2008;14:623–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Household Survey. 2011. Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity in Canada. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-010-x/99-010-x2011001-eng.pdf. Assessed 22 March 2014.
  3. 3.
    Belhadj Kouider E, Koglin U, Petermann F. Emotional and behavioral problems in migrant children and adolescents in Europe: a systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry; 2013 (in press; published online: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00787-013-0485-8).
  4. 4.
    United States Census Bureau. Homeownership among the Foreign-Born Population. 2011. http://www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/acsbr11-15.pdf. Assessed 22 Feb 2014.
  5. 5.
    OECD (2014). Country statistical profiles: Mexico. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/country-statistical-profile-mexico_20752288-table-mex. Assessed 23 March 2014.
  6. 6.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington (VA): American Psychiatric Association; 2013.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Achenbach TM. Manual for the child behavior checklist/4-18 and 1991 profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry; 1991.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Systematic Reviews. CRD’s guidance for undertaking reviews in health care. York: University of York; 2009.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hahn A, Neubauer BA. Autism and metabolic disorders—a rational approach. Z Kinder- Jugendpsych. 2005;33:259–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schulte-Körne G, Warnke A, Remschmidt H. Genetics of dyslexia. Z Kinder-Jug Psych. 2006;34:435–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goodman R. The strengths and difficulties Questionnaire: a research note. J Child Psychol Psyc. 1997;38:581–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stevens GWJM, Vollebergh WAM. Mental health in migrant children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008;49:276–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Glick JE, Hanish LD, Yakibu ST, Bradley RH. Migration timing and parenting practices: contributions to social development in preschoolers with foreign-born and native-born mothers. Child Dev. 2012;83:1527–42.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sirin SR, Ryce P, Gupta T, Rogers-Sirin L. The role of acculturative stress on mental health symptoms for immigrant adolescents: a longitudinal investigation. Dev Psychol. 2013;49:736–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Merinkangas KR, Conway CP, Swendsen J, Febo V, Dierker L, Brunetto W, Stolar M, Canino G. Substance use and behaviour disorders in Puerto Rican youth: a migrant family study. J Epidemiol Commun H. 2009;63:310–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nguyen H, Rawana JS, Flora DB. Risk and protective predictors of trajectories of depressive symptoms among adolescents from immigrant backgrounds. J Youth Adolesc. 2011;40:1544–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Montazer S, Wheaton B. The impact of generation and country of origin on the mental health of children of immigrants. J Health Soc Behav. 2011;52:23–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen X. Tse HCH: social and psychological adjustment of Chinese Canadian children. Int J Beh Dev. 2010;34:330–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Offord DR, Boyle MH, Szatmari P, Rae-Grant NI, Links PS, Cadman DT, et al. Ontario Child Health Study. II. Six-month prevalence of disorder and rates of service utilization. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997;44:832–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen X, Lee B. The cultural and social acculturation scale (child and adult version). London: Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario; 1996.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Helzer JE. The diagnostic interview schedule: its development, evolution, and use. Soc Psych Psych Epid. 1988;23:6–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Merrell KW. Assessment of behavioral, social, and emotional problems: direct and objective methods for use with children and adolescents. White Plains: Longman; 1994.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mena FJ, Padilla AM, Maldonado M. Acculturative stress and specific coping strategies among immigrant and later generation college students. Hispanic J Behav Sci. 1997;9:207–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marsh HW, Gouvernet PJ. Multidimensional self-concepts and perceptions of control: construct validation of responses by children. J Educ Psychol. 1989;81:57–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harter S. Manual for the self-perception profile for children. Denver: University of Denver; 1985.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gresham FM, Elliott SN. Social skills rating system manual. Circle Pines: AGS; 1990.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Achenbach TM. Manual for the youth self report and 1991 profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry; 1991.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jackson M, Kiernan K, McLanahan S. Immigrant-native differences in child health: does maternal education narrow or widen the gap?. Mimeo: Princeton University; 2011.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Whiteside-Mansell L, Bradley RH, McKelvey L. Parenting and preschool child development: examination of three low-income US cultural groups. J Child Fam Stud. 2009;18:48–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Turney K, Kao G. Pre-kindergarten child care and behavioral outcomes among children of immigrants. Early Child Res Q. 2009;24:432–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Han WJ, Huang CC. The forgotten treasure: bilingualism and Asian children’s emotional and behavioral health. Am J Public Health. 2012;100:831–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Calzada EJ, Brotman LM, Huang KY, Bat-Chava Y, Kingston S. Parent cultural adaptation and child functioning in culturally diverse, urban families of preschoolers. J Appl Dev Psychol. 2009;30:515–24.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Huang KY, Calzada E, Cheng S, Brotman LM. Physical and mental health disparities among young children of Asian immigrants. Journal Pediatr. 2012;160:331–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Song SJ, Ziegler R, Arsenault L, Fried LE, Hacker K. Asian student depression in American high schools: differences in risk factors. J School Nursing. 2011;27:455–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Degboe A, BeLue R, Hillemeier M. Parental immigrant status and adolescent mental health in the United States: do racial/ethnic differences exist? Child Adolesc Mental Health. 2012;17:209–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hao L, Woo HS. Distinct trajectories in the transition to adulthood: are children of immigrants advantaged? Child Dev. 2012;83:1623–39.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Carson N, Cook B, Alegria M. Social determinants of mental health treatment among Haitian, African American and white youth in community health centers. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2010;2:32–48.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Washbrook E, Waldfogel J, Bradbury B, Corak M, Ghangro AA. The development of young children of immigrants in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Child Dev. 2012;83:1591–607.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Beiser M, Hamilton H, Rummens JA, Oxman-Martinez J, Ogilvie L, Humphrey C, Armstrong R. Predictors of emotional problems and physical aggression among children of Hong Kong Chinese, Mainland Chinese and Filipino immigrants to Canada. Social Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2010;45:1011–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hamilton HA, Marshall L, Rummens JA, Fenta H, Simich L. Immigrant parents’perception of school environment and children’s mental health and behavior. J School Health. 2011;81:313–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chan K, Penner K, Mah JWT, Johnston C. Assessing parenting behaviors in Euro-Canadian and East Asian immigrant mothers: limitations to observations of responsiveness. Child Fam Behav Ther. 2010;32:85–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zea MC, Asner-Self KK, Birman D, Buki LP. The abbreviated multidimensional acculturation scale: empirical validation with two Latino/Latina samples. Cult Divers Ethnic Minor. 2013;9:107–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Liu L, Benner AD, Lau AS, Kim SY. Mother-adolescent language proficiency and adolescent academy and emotional adjustment among Chinese American families. J Youth Adolesc. 2009;38:572–86.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kim SY, Wang Y, Deng S, Alvarez R, Li J. Accent, perceptual foreigner stereotype, and perceived discrimination as indirect links between English proficiency and depressive symptoms in Chinese American adolescents. Dev Psychol. 2011;47:289–301.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Liu LL, Lau AS, Chia-Chen Chen A, Dinh KT, Kim SY. The influence of maternal acculturation, neighborhood disadvantage, and parenting on Chinese American adolescents’ conduct problems: testing the segmented assimilation hypothesis. J Youth Adolesc. 2009;38:691–702.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Juang LP, Cookston JT. A longitudinal study of family obligation and depressive symptoms among Chinese American adolescents. J Fam Psychol. 2009;23:396–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Deng S, Kim SY, Vaughan PW, Li J. Cultural orientation as a moderator of the relationship between Chinese American adolescents’ discrimination experiences and delinquent behaviors. J Youth Adolesc. 2010;39:1027–40.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kim SY, Chen Q, Li J, Huang X, Moon UJ. Parent-child acculturation, parenting, and adolescent depressive symptoms in Chinese immigrant families. J Fam Psychol. 2010;23:426–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Park IJK, Kim PY, Cheung RYM, Kim M. The role of culture, family processes, and anger regulation in Korean American adolescents’ adjustment problems. Am J Orthopsychiat. 2010;80:258–66.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bridges AJ, de Arellano MA, Rheingold AA, Danielson CK, Silcott L. Trauma exposure, mental health, and service utilization rates among immigrant and United States-born Hispanic youth: results from the Hispanic family study. Psychol Trauma. 2010;2:40–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lara-Cinisomo S, Xue Y, Brooks-Gunn J. Latino youth’s internalizing behaviours: links to immigrant status and neighbourhood characteristics. Ethnicity Health 2013;18:315–35. Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Martinez CR, McClure HH, Eddy JM, Wilson DM. Time in US residency and the social, behavioral and emotional adjustment of Latino immigrant families. Hispanic J Behav Sci. 2011;33:323–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Potochnik SR, Pereirra KM. Depression and anxiety among first-generation immigrant Latino youth: key correlates and implicates for future research. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010;198:470–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Smokowski PR, Rose RA, Bacallao M. Influence of risk factors and cultural assets on Latino adolescents’ trajectories of self-esteem and internalizing symptoms. Child Psychiatr Hum D. 2010;41:133–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Smokowski PR, Bacallao M, Buchanan RL. Interpersonal mediators linking acculturation stressors to subsequent internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in Latino adolescents. J Commun Psychol. 2009;37:1024–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Martinez CR, McClure HH, Eddy M. Language brokering contexts and behavioral and emotional adjustment among Latino parents and adolescents. J Early Adolescence 2009;29:71–98Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    de Leon Siantz ML, Coronado N, Dovydaitis T. Maternal predictors of behavioral problems among Mexican migrant farmworker children. J Fam Nurs. 2010;16:322–43.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Szapocznik J, Kurtines W, Fernandez T. Biculturalism involvement and adjustment in Hispanic American youths. Inter J Intercult Rel. 1980;4:353–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Robin AL, Foster SL. Negotiating parent-adolescent conflict: a behavioral-family systems approach. New York: Guilford; 1989.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kovacs M. Children’s depression inventory (CDI): technical manual update. New York: Multi-Health Systems; 2003.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cervantes RC, Padilla AM, Saldago de Snyder N. The hispanic stress inventory: a culturally relevant approach to psychosocial assessment. Psychol Assess. 1991;3:438–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ge X, Best KM, Conger RD, Simons RL. Parenting behaviors and the occurrence of adolescent depressive symptoms and conduct problems. Dev Psychol. 1996;32:717–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    March JS, Parker JDA, Sullivan K, Stallings P, Conners CK. The multidimensional anxiety scale for children (MASC): factor structure, reliability, and validity. J Am Acad Chil Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36:554–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Singelis TM. The measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals. Pers Soc Psychol B. 1994;20:580–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Spielberger CD. State-trait anger expression inventory-2. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resource; 1999.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ryder AG, Alden LE, Paulhus DL. Is acculturation unidimensional or bidimensional? A head-to-head comparison in the prediction of personality, self-identity, and adjustment. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000;79:49–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rodriguez J, Umaña-Taylor AJ, Smith EP, Johnson D. Cultural processes in parenting and youth outcomes: examining a model of racial-ethnic socialization and identity in diverse populations. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2009;15:106–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Umaña-Taylor AJ, Alfaro EC, Bámaca MY, Guimond AB. The central role of familial ethnic socialization in Latino adolescents’ cultural orientation. J Marriage Fam. 2009;71:46–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Umaña-Taylor AJ, Updegraff K. Latino adolescents’ mental health: exploring the role of discrimination, ethnic identity, acculturation, and self-esteem. J Adolesc. 2007;30:549–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ying Y, Han M. A longitudinal effect of intergenerational gap in acculturation on conflict and mental health in Southeast Asian American adolescents. Am J Orthopsych. 2007;77:61–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ying Y, Han M. Familism and mental health: variation between Asian American children of refugees and immigrants. Int J Appl Psychoanal Stud. 2007;4:333–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Richter J, Sagatun A, Heyerdahl S, Oppedal B, Roysamb E. The strengths and difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)—self report. An analysis of its structure in a multiethnic urban adolescent sample. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011;52:1002–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ridley CR, Li LC, Hill CL. Multicultural assessment: reexamination, reconceptualization, and practical application. Couns Psychol. 1998;26:827–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esmahan Belhadj Kouider
    • 1
  • Ute Koglin
    • 2
  • Franz Petermann
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Clinical Psychology and RehabilitationBremenGermany
  2. 2.Institutes for Special Education and Rehabilitation, Psychology Group for Special Education and RehabilitationUniversity OldenburgOldenburgGermany

Personalised recommendations