Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 432–440 | Cite as

Dietary Sources of Calcium Among Parents and Their Early Adolescent Children in the United States by Parent Race/Ethnicity and Place of Birth

  • Mary Cluskey
  • Siew Sun Wong
  • Rickelle Richards
  • Miriam Ballejos
  • Marla Reicks
  • Garry Auld
  • Carol Boushey
  • Christine Bruhn
  • Scottie Misner
  • Beth Olson
  • Sahar Zaghloul
Original Paper


Dietary calcium sources may differ by race/ethnicity and dietary acculturation. A cross-sectional, convenience sample including 587 United States (US) Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White parent–child (10–13 years) pairs completed a calcium food frequency questionnaire. Calcium sources were ranked by mean percent contribution to total adjusted calcium intake, and compared by ethnic group and parents’ location of birth. Five foods (fluid milk, cheese, milk on cereal, yogurt, and lattes) represented 49 % of total calcium intake for parents. The same foods (except lattes) represented 55 % of total calcium for early adolescent children. Fluid milk provided the largest mean percentage of intake for all race/ethnic groups among parents and children. Several food sources of calcium were greater for foreign-born versus US-born Asian or Hispanic parents and children. Understanding calcium food sources and changes in dietary patterns that affect calcium intake among parents and children is important to better promote adequate intake.


Dietary acculturation Dietary calcium sources Parents Early adolescent children 



This project was funded with money appropriated by Congress through the Hatch Act to Agricultural Experiment Stations of land grant universities for multistate research projects.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary Cluskey
    • 1
  • Siew Sun Wong
    • 1
  • Rickelle Richards
    • 2
  • Miriam Ballejos
    • 3
  • Marla Reicks
    • 4
  • Garry Auld
    • 5
  • Carol Boushey
    • 6
  • Christine Bruhn
    • 7
  • Scottie Misner
    • 8
  • Beth Olson
    • 9
  • Sahar Zaghloul
    • 10
  1. 1.Nutrition, School of Biological and Population Health SciencesOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food ScienceBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Food Science and Human NutritionWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  4. 4.Department of Food Science and NutritionUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA
  5. 5.Department of Food Science & Human NutritionColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  6. 6.Epidemiology ProgramUniversity of Hawaii Cancer CenterHonoluluUSA
  7. 7.Center for Consumer Research, Food Science and TechnologyUniversity of California DavisDavisUSA
  8. 8.Department of Nutritional SciencesUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  9. 9.Department of Nutritional SciencesUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  10. 10.National Nutrition InstituteCairoEgypt

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