Advertisement

Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 248–254 | Cite as

Sun Protection Attitudes and Behaviours Among First Generation Australians with Darker Skin Types: Results from Focus Groups

  • Jamie BryantEmail author
  • Alison Zucca
  • Irena Brozek
  • Vanessa Rock
  • Billie Bonevski
Original Paper

Abstract

Despite residing in a country that has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and sun protection practices of first generation Australian-born individuals with olive and darker skin types. Six focus groups with first generation Australian-born individuals of Asian, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and Indian background were conducted. Participants had good knowledge of the dangers of skin cancer. Most correctly perceived darker skin types as protective and believed they were at low risk of skin cancer. Most participants could recall high profile mass media sun protection campaigns. Several participants suggested that greater representation of ethnic minorities and/or individuals with darker skin types would increase the personal relevance of campaigns. Beliefs that sun protection is not necessary on the basis of skin type highlights the need for further studies to explore fundamental differences in attitudes and practices between those with olive and darker skin and the general Australian population.

Keywords

Skin neoplasms Sun exposure Knowledge Attitudes Darker skin types 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by Cancer Council New South Wales and supported by a Strategic Research Partnership Grant from the Cancer Council NSW to the Newcastle Cancer Control Collaborative. The authors would like to thank the Migrant Resource Centres who assisted with recruitment of participants, the participants who took part in the research, and Kimberley Jones for assistance with manuscript preparation.

Conflict of interest

All authors declare they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

Ethical approval was granted by the University of Newcastle Human Ethics Research Committee: H-2011–028.

References

  1. 1.
    Armstrong BK, Kricker A. The epidemiology of UV induced skin cancer. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2001;63:8–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Cancer in Australia: an overview. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Canberra; 2008.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Non-melanoma skin cancer: general practice consultations, hospitalisation and mortality. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Canberra; 2008.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare & Australasian Association of Cancer Registries 2010. Cancer in Australia: an overview, 2010. Cancer series no. 60. Cat. no. CAN 56. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2012.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chang Y, Barrett JH, Bishop T, et al. Sun exposure and melanoma risk at different latitudes: a pooled analysis of 5700 cases and 7216 controls. Int J Epidemiol. 2009;38(3):814–30.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gandini S, Autier P, Boniol M. Reviews on sun exposure and artificial light and melanoma. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2011;107(3):362–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stern RS, Momtaz K. Skin typing for assessment of skin cancer risk and acute response to UV-B and oral methoxsalen photochemotherapy. Arch Dermatol. 1984;120(7):869–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bradford PT. Skin cancer in skin of colour. Dermatol Nursing. 2009;21(4):170–8.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hu S. Are we overlooking skin cancer in ethnic minorities? Cutaneous Oncol Today 2011:5–8.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kabigting FD, Nelson FP, Kauffman L, Popoveniuc G, Dasanu CA, Alexandrescu DT. Malignant melanoma in African–Americans. Dermatol Online J 2009;15(2).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cormier JN, Xing Y, Ding M, Lee JE, Mansfield PF, Gershenwald JE, et al. Ethnic differences among patients with cutaneous melanoma. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(17):1907–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Australian and New Zealand Bone and Mineral Society. Osteoporosis Australia, The Australasian College of Dermatologists. Position statement: Cancer Council Australia. Risks and benefits of sun exposure; 2007.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dobbinson SJ, Wakefield MA, Jamsen KM, Herd NL, Spittal MJ, Lipscombe JE, et al. Weekend sun protection and sunburn in Australia: trends (1987–2002) and association with sun smart television advertising. Am J Prev Med. 2008;34(2):94–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sinclair C, Borland R, Davidson M, Noy S. From Slip! Slop! Slap! to sun smart: a profile of a health education campaign. Cancer Forum. 1996;18(3):183–7.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shih ST, Carter R, Sinclair C, Mihalopoulosa C, Vos T. Economic evaluation of skin cancer prevention in Australia. Prev Med. 2009;49(5):449–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dobbinson S, Volkov A. Skin cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes and beliefs among Australians in summer 2010–11 and comparison with 2003–04 and 2006–07: Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer, The Cancer Council Victoria, 2011.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australia’s cultural and linguistic diversity. In: Year Book Australia 2009–2010. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 2010.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 2005; 55:74–108.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Robinson JK, Joshi KM, Ortiz S, Kundu RV. Melanoma knowledge, perception and awareness in ethnic minorities in Chicago: recommendations regarding education. Psycho-Onology. 2011;20:313–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Andreeva VA, Unger JB, Yaroch AL, Cockburn MG, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Reynolds KD. Acculturation and sun-safe behaviours among US lations: findings from the 2005 health information national trends survey. Am J Public Health. 2009;99:734–41.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gorell E, Lee C, Muñoz C, Lynn A, Chang S. Adoption of western culture by Californian Asian Americans: attitudes and practices promoting sun exposure. Arch Dermatol. 2009;145(5):552–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Glanz K, Rimer B, Viswanath K, editors. Health Behaviour and Health Education: theory research and practice. 4th ed. San Francisco, 2008.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    QSR NVivo [program]. 8.0.335.0 SP4 version, 1999–2009.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Crabtree B, Miller W. A template approach to text analysis: developing and using codebooks. In: Crabtree B, Miller W, editors. Doing qualitative research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage; 1999.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Holloway I, Wheeler S. Qualitative research in nursing. 2nd ed. Melbourne: Blackwell; 2002.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tong A, Sainsbury P, Craig J. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups. Int J Qual Health Care. 2007;19(6):349–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Keeney S, McKenna H, Fleming P, McIlfatrick S. Attitudes, knowledge and behaviours with regard to skin cancer: a literature review. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2009;13(1):29–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Martin RH. Relationship between risk factors, knowledge and preventive behaviour relevant to skin cancer in general practice patients in South Australia. Br J Gen Pract. 1995;45(296):365–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Buster JJ, You Z, Fouad M, Elmets C. Skin cancer risk perceptions: a comparison across ethnicity, age, education, gender, and income. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;66(5):771–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Clarke VA, Williams T, Arthey S. Skin type and optimistic bias in relation to the sun protection and suntanning behaviors of young adults. J Behav Med. 1997;20(2):207–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Holick MF, Vitamin D. Deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:266–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sofaer S. Qualitative methods: what are they and why use them? Health Serv Res. 1999;34:1101–18.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jamie Bryant
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alison Zucca
    • 1
  • Irena Brozek
    • 2
  • Vanessa Rock
    • 2
  • Billie Bonevski
    • 3
  1. 1.Priority Research Centre for Health Behaviour, Health Behaviour Research GroupUniversity of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research InstituteCallaghanAustralia
  2. 2.Cancer Council NSWWoolloomoolooAustralia
  3. 3.School of Medicine and Public HealthUniversity of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia

Personalised recommendations