Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 613–621

Disparities in Mammography Rate Among Immigrant and Native-Born Women in the U.S.: Progress and Challenges

Original Paper

Abstract

Disproportionately low mammography rates among U.S. immigrants have been of persistent concern. In light of policies to increase access to screening, this study identifies differences in factors associated with screening among immigrant and native-born women in 2000 and 2008. Data from immigrant and native-born women aged 40+ years in the 2000 and 2008 National Health Interview Surveys were included in descriptive and multivariate regression analyses. Mammography rates rose from 60.2 to 65.5 % among immigrant women, remaining lower than the 68.9 % rate among native-born in 2008. Among immigrants, short length of residency and lower education were associated with lower screening rates in 2000 but not in 2008, while public insurance coverage was positively associated with screening only in 2008. In contrast to immigrants, among the native-born education and income were associated with mammography receipt in 2008, and in both groups health care access was associated with greater screening rates. Policy initiatives aimed at increasing access to mammography may be positively affecting immigrant screening disparities. Access to primary care and public insurance coverage are likely to be very important in maintaining and furthering improvements in mammography rates.

Keywords

Mammography Immigrants Health care access Cancer screening 

References

  1. 1.
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E. Cancer statistics, 2010. CA Cancer J Clin. 2010;60(5):277–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nelson HD, Tyne K, Naik A, Bougatsos C, Chan BK, Humphrey L. Screening for breast cancer: an update for the US preventive services task force. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(10):727.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berry DA, Cronin KA, Plevritis SK, Fryback DG, Clarke L, Zelen M, et al. Effect of screening and adjuvant therapy on mortality from breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(17):1784–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Breen N, Gentleman JF, Schiller JS. Update on mammography trends: comparisons of rates in 2000, 2005, and 2008. Cancer. 2011;117(10):2209–18.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Billmeier TM, Dallo FJ. Nativity status and mammography use: results from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. J Immigr Minor Health. 2011;13(5):883–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    De Alba I, Hubbell F, McMullin J, Sweningson J, Saitz R. Impact of US citizenship status on cancer screening among immigrant women. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20(3):290–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McDonald JT, Neily J. Race, immigrant status, and cancer among women in the United States. J Immigr Minor Health. 2011;13(1):27–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dailey AB, Brumback BA, Livingston MD, Jones BA, Curbow BA, Xu X. Area-level socioeconomic position and repeat mammography screening use: results from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20(11):2331–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gibson C, Jung K. Historical census statistics on the foreign-born population of the United States, 1850 to 2000: population division, US Census Bureau. 2006.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    The Pew Hispanic Center. Statistical Portrait of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States. 2009. 2011. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2011/02/17/statistical-portrait-of-the-foreign-born-population-in-the-united-states-2009/. Accessed Dec 2012.
  11. 11.
    Wu T, Ronis D. Correlates of recent and regular mammography screening among Asian-American women. J Adv Nurs. 2009;65(11):2434–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blanchard K, Colbert JA, Puri D, Weissman J, Moy B, Kopans DB, et al. Mammographic screening: patterns of use and estimated impact on breast carcinoma survival. Cancer. 2004;101(3):495–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kobetz E, Menard J, Barton B, Maldonado J, Diem J, Auguste P, et al. Barriers to Breast Cancer Screening Among Haitian Immigrant Women in Little Haiti, Miami. J Immigr Minor Health. 2010;1–7.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tejeda S, Thompson B, Coronado GD, Martin DP. Barriers and facilitators related to mammography use among lower educated Mexican women in the USA. Soc Sci Med. 2009;68(5):832–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carrasquillo O, Pati S. The role of health insurance on Pap smear and mammography utilization by immigrants living in the United States. Prev Med. 2004;39(5):943–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Echeverria SE, Carrasquillo O. The roles of citizenship status, acculturation, and health insurance in breast and cervical cancer screening among immigrant women. Med Care. 2006;44(8):788–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    American Cancer Society. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program. 2012. http://www.cancer.org/Healthy/FindCancerEarly/WomensHealth/EarlyDetectionofSpecificCancers/nbccedp. Accessed 31 Aug 2012.
  18. 18.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/nbccedp/about.htm. Accessed 31 Aug 2012.
  19. 19.
    Oransky I. Francesca Gany. Lancet. 2005;366(9490):977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    University of Pennsylvania. Asian Health Initiatives. 2012. http://www.cphi.upenn.edu/asian_home.shtml. Accessed 31 Aug 2012.
  21. 21.
    Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Immigrant Health & Cancer Disparities Service. 2012. http://www.mskcc.org/research/psychiatry-behavioral-sciences/immigrant-health-disparities-service. Accessed 31 Aug 2012.
  22. 22.
    The University of Chicago Medicine Comprehensive Cancer Center. Community Engagement Programs. 2012. http://cancer.uchicago.edu/community/engagement/. Accessed 31 Aug 2012.
  23. 23.
    Swan J, Breen N, Coates RJ, Rimer BK, Lee NC. Progress in cancer screening practices in the United States: results from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Cancer. 2003;97(6):1528–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Public Use Data Release NHIS Survey Description. National Center for Health Statistics. 2009.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schoenborn CA, Adams PF, Schiller JS. Summary health statistics for the US population: National Health Interview Survey, 2000. Vital and health statistics. Series 10, Data from the National Health Survey. 2003;214:1.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Adams P, Heyman K, Vickerie J. Summary health statistics for the US population: national Health Interview Survey, 2008. Vital and health statistics. Series 10, Data from the National Health Survey. 2009;243:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mandelblatt JS, Yabroff KR, Kerner JF. Equitable access to cancer services: a review of barriers to quality care. Cancer. 1999;86(11):2378–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Smith-Bindman R, Miglioretti DL, Lurie N, Abraham L, Barbash RB, Strzelczyk J, et al. Does utilization of screening mammography explain racial and ethnic differences in breast cancer? Ann Intern Med. 2006;144(8):541–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bigby J, Holmes MD. Disparities across the breast cancer continuum. Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16(1):35–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goel MS, Wee CC, McCarthy EP, Davis RB, Ngo-Metzger Q, Phillips RS. Racial and ethnic disparities in cancer screening: the importance of foreign birth as a barrier to care. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(12):1028–35.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rong XL, Preissle J. Educating immigrant students in the 21st century: what educators need to know. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press; 2009.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Courtney-Long E, Armour B, Frammartino B, Miller J. Factors associated with self-reported mammography use for women with and women without a disability. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011;20(9):1279–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rakowski W, Wyn R, Breen N, Meissner H, Clark MA. Prevalence and correlates of recent and repeat mammography among California women ages 55–79. Cancer Epidemiol. 2010;34(2):168–77.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Peek ME, Han JH. Disparities in screening mammography. Current status, interventions and implications. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19(2):184–94.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Camarota S. A record-setting decade of immigration: 2000 to 2010. http://cis.org/2000-2010-record-setting-decade-of-immigration. Accessed 31 Aug 2012.
  36. 36.
    Newell SA, Girgis A, Sanson-Fisher RW, Savolainen NJ. The accuracy of self-reported health behaviors and risk factors relating to cancer and cardiovascular disease in the general population: a critical review. Am J Prev Med. 1999;17(3):211–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brown WM, Consedine NS, Magai C. Time spent in the United States and breast cancer screening behaviors among ethnically diverse immigrant women: evidence for acculturation? J Immigr Minor Health. 2006;8(4):347–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Consedine NS, Magai C, Horton D, Neugut AI, Gillespie M. Health belief model factors in mammography screening: testing for interactions among subpopulations of Caribbean women. Ethn Dis. 2005;15(3):444–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Magai C, Consedine N, Conway F, Neugut A, Culver C. Diversity matters: unique populations of women and breast cancer screening. Cancer. 2004;100(11):2300–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Consedine NS, Magai C, Neugut AI. The contribution of emotional characteristics to breast cancer screening among women from six ethnic groups. Prev Med. 2004;38(1):64–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Huerta EE. Cancer statistics for Hispanics, 2003: good news, bad news, and the need for a health system paradigm change. CA Cancer J Clin. 2003;53(4):205–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    World Health Organization. Breast cancer: prevention and control. 2012.http://www.who.int/cancer/detection/breastcancer/en/index.html. Accessed 31 Aug 2012.
  43. 43.
    American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society Guidelines for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer. 2012. http://www.cancer.org/Healthy/FindCancerEarly/CancerScreeningGuidelines/american-cancer-society-guidelines-for-the-early-detection-of-cancer. Accessed 31 Aug 2012.
  44. 44.
    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Breast Cancer. 2012. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsbrca.htm. Accessed 31 Aug 2012.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Health Policy and AdministrationThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations