Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 429–439 | Cite as

Characterization of the Hispanic or Latino Population in Health Research: A Systematic Review

  • Abraham AragonesEmail author
  • Susan L. Hayes
  • Mei Hsuan Chen
  • Javier González
  • Francesca M. Gany
Original Paper


The size and diversity of the Hispanic population in the United States has dramatically increased, with vast implications for health research. We conducted a systematic review of the characterization of the Hispanic population in health research and described its implications. Relevant studies were identified by searches of PubMed, Embase Scopus, and Science/Social Sciences Citation Index from 2000 to 2011. 131 articles met criteria. 56 % of the articles reported only “Hispanic” or “Latino” as the characteristic of the Hispanic research population while no other characteristics were reported. 29 % of the articles reported language, 27 % detailed country of origin and 2 % provided the breakdown of race. There is great inconsistency in reported characteristics of Hispanics in health research. The lack of detailed characterization of this population ultimately creates roadblocks in translating evidence into practice when providing care to the large and increasingly diverse Hispanic population in the US.


Hispanic population Population characterization Health research Ethnicity 


  1. 1.
    Bureau USC. 2010 Census Demographic Profiles. 2010; Accessed Aug 2011.
  2. 2.
    Bureau USC. The Hispanic Population: 2010. 2011; Accessed Aug 2011.
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    BUDGET OOMA. Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. 2003.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Center PH. Pew Hispanic Center tabulations of 2009 American Community Survey. 2009; Accessed Aug 2011.
  6. 6.
    Bureau USC. Language Use in the United States: 2007 Report. 2007; Accessed Aug 2011.
  7. 7.
    Center PH. Statistical Portrait of Hispanics in the United States, 2009. 2011; Accessed Aug 2011.
  8. 8.
    Lawsin C, Erwin D, Bursac Z, Jandorf L. Heterogeneity in breast and cervical cancer screening practices among female Hispanic immigrants in the United States. J Immigr Minor Health. 2011;13(5):834–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pabon-Nau LP, Cohen A, Meigs JB, Grant RW. Hypertension and diabetes prevalence among U.S. Hispanics by country of origin: the National Health Interview Survey 2000–2005. J Gen Intern Med. 2010;25(8):847–52.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Green R, Santoro NF, McGinn AP, et al. The relationship between psychosocial status, acculturation and country of origin in mid-life Hispanic women: data from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Climacteric. 2010;13(6):534–43.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Subramanian SV, Jun HJ, Kawachi I, Wright RJ. Contribution of race/ethnicity and country of origin to variations in lifetime reported asthma: evidence for a nativity advantage. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(4):690–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oliveira K, Clark S, Dunn E, Mangram A. Spanish as a primary language and its effect on breast cancer presentation. J Oncol Pract. 2011;7(3):165–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eamranond PP, Legedza AT, Diez-Roux AV, et al. Association between language and risk factor levels among Hispanic adults with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or diabetes. Am Heart J. 2009;157(1):53–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen NE, Gallant JE, Page KR. A systematic review of HIV/AIDS survival and delayed diagnosis among hispanics in the United States. J Immigr Minor Health. 2011;14(1):65–81.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pinheiro PS, Williams M, Miller EA, Easterday S, Moonie S, Trapido EJ. Cancer survival among Latinos and the Hispanic Paradox. Cancer Causes Control. 2011;22(4):553–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Keegan TH, Quach T, Shema S, Glaser SL, Gomez SL. The influence of nativity and neighborhoods on breast cancer stage at diagnosis and survival among California Hispanic women. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:603.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lutsey PL, Diez Roux AV, Jacobs DR Jr, et al. Associations of acculturation and socioeconomic status with subclinical cardiovascular disease in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(11):1963–70.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Division of Research and Epidemiology BoHI, Statistics, Research, and Evaluation, Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Massachusetts Births 2009. 2011.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kim M VWG, Kerker B, Thorpe L, Frieden TR. The health of immigrants in New York City. In: Hygiene YCDoHaM, ed2006.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Center PH. Hispanics and health care in the United States: access, information and knowledge. 2008; Accessed Aug 2011.
  21. 21.
    Downs LS, Smith JS, Scarinci I, Flowers L, Parham G. The disparity of cervical cancer in diverse populations. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;109(2 Suppl):S22–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Institute of Medicine. Race, ethnicity, and language data: standardization for health care quality improvement. 2009; Accessed Aug 2011.
  23. 23.
    Services USDoHH. HHS announces refined survey standards to examine and help eliminate differences in care based on race, ethnicity, sex, primary language, or disability. 2011; Accessed Dec 2011.
  24. 24.
    Diaz JA, Roberts MB, Goldman RE, Weitzen S, Eaton CB. Effect of language on colorectal cancer screening among Latinos and non-Latinos. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2008;17(8):2169–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chien C, Morimoto LM, Tom J, Li CI. Differences in colorectal carcinoma stage and survival by race and ethnicity. Cancer. 2005;104(3):629–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gomez SL, O’Malley CD, Stroup A, Shema SJ, Satariano WA. Longitudinal, population-based study of racial/ethnic differences in colorectal cancer survival: impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status, treatment and comorbidity. BMC Cancer. 2007;7:1–19.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Society AC. Cancer Facts & Figures 2011. 2011; Accessed Aug 2011.
  28. 28.
    Edwards BK, Ward E, Kohler BA, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2006, featuring colorectal cancer trends and impact of interventions (risk factors, screening, and treatment) to reduce future rates. Cancer. 2010;116(3):544–73.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Afable-Munsuz A, Liang SY, Ponce NA, Walsh JM. Acculturation and colorectal cancer screening among older Latino adults: differential associations by national origin. J Gen Intern Med. 2009;24(8):963–70.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jessup JM, Stewart A, Greene FL, Minsky BD. Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer: implications of race/ethnicity, age, and differentiation. JAMA. 2005;294(21):2703–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Esnaola NF, Stewart AK, Feig BW, Skibber JM, Rodriguez-Bigas MA. Age-, race-, and ethnicity-related differences in the treatment of nonmetastatic rectal cancer: a patterns of care study from the national cancer data base. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15(11):3036–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    He J, Stram DO, Kolonel LN, Henderson BE, Le Marchand L, Haiman CA. The association of diabetes with colorectal cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort. Br J Cancer. 2010;103(1):120–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Coronado GD, Farias A, Thompson B, Godina R, Oderkirk W. Attitudes and beliefs about colorectal cancer among Mexican Americans in communities along the US-Mexico border. Ethn Dis. 2006;16(2):421–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Natale-Pereira A, Marks J, Vega M, Mouzon D, Hudson SV, Salas-Lopez D. Barriers and facilitators for colorectal cancer screening practices in the Latino community: perspectives from community leaders. Cancer Control. 2008;15(2):157–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Goodman MJ, Ogdie A, Kanamori MJ, Canar J, O’Malley AS. Barriers and facilitators of colorectal cancer screening among mid-Atlantic Latinos: focus group findings. Ethn Dis. 2006;16(1):255–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bastani R, Gallardo NV, Maxwell AE. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening among ethnically diverse high- and average-risk individuals. J Psychosoc Oncol. 2001;19(3–4):65–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Walsh JM, Kaplan CP, Nguyen B, Gildengorin G, McPhee SJ, Perez-Stable EJ. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Latino and Vietnamese Americans. Compared with non-Latino white Americans. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19(2):156–66.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brouse CH, Basch CE, Wolf RL, Shmukler C, Neugut AI, Shea S. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening with fecal occult blood testing in a predominantly minority urban population: a qualitative study. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(8):1268–71.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Green AR, Peters-Lewis A, Percac-Lima S, et al. Barriers to screening colonoscopy for low-income Latino and white patients in an urban community health center. J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23(6):834–40.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Royak-Schaler R, Blocker DE, Yali AM, Bynoe M, Briant KJ, Smith S. Breast and colorectal cancer risk communication approaches with low-income African-American and Hispanic women: implications for healthcare providers. J Natl Med Assoc. 2004;96(5):598–608.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Diaz JA, Goldman R, Arellano N, Borkan J, Eaton CB. Brief report: exploration of colorectal cancer risk perceptions among Latinos. J Immigr Minor Health. 2010;13(1):1–5.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Beach ML, Flood AB, Robinson CM, et al. Can language-concordant prevention care managers improve cancer screening rates? Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16(10):2058–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shokar NK, Vernon SW, Weller SC. Cancer and colorectal cancer: knowledge, beliefs, and screening preferences of a diverse patient population. Fam Med. 2005;37(5):341–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Palmquist AE, Koehly LM, Peterson SK, Shegog M, Vernon SW, Gritz ER. “The Cancer Bond”: exploring the formation of cancer risk perception in families with Lynch syndrome. J Genet Couns. 2010;19(5):473–86.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Coughlin SS, Costanza ME, Fernandez ME, et al. CDC-funded intervention research aimed at promoting colorectal cancer screening in communities. Cancer. 2006;107(Suppl):1196–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Slattery ML, Herrick J, Wolff RK, Caan BJ, Potter JD, Sweeney C. CDX2 VDR polymorphism and colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2007;16(12):2752–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Karsten B, Kim J, King J, Kumar RR. Characteristics of colorectal cancer in young patients at an urban county hospital. Am Surg. 2008;74(10):973–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wilson JJ, Mick R, Wei SJ, et al. Clinical trial resources on the internet must be designed to reach underrepresented minorities. Cancer J. 2006;12(6):475–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Walsh JME, Posner SF, Perez-Stable EJ. Colon cancer screening in the ambulatory setting. Prev Med. 2002;35(3):209–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Thorpe LE, Mostashari F, Hajat A, et al. Colon cancer screening practices in New York city, 2003: results of a large random-digit dialed telephone survey. Cancer. 2005;104(5):1075–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Francois F, Park J, Bini EJ. Colon pathology detected after a positive screening flexible sigmoidoscopy: a prospective study in an ethnically diverse cohort. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101(4):823–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ellison J, Jandorf L, Duhamel K. Colonoscopy screening information preferences among Urban Hispanics. J Immigr Minor Health. 2010;3(5):963–6.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stefanidis D, Pollock BH, Miranda J, et al. Colorectal cancer in Hispanics: a population at risk for earlier onset, advanced disease, and decreased survival. Am J Clin Oncol. 2006;29(2):123–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    McNeill LH, Coeling M, Puleo E, Suarez EG, Bennett GG, Emmons KM. Colorectal cancer prevention for low-income, sociodemographically-diverse adults in public housing: baseline findings of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:353.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fernandez ME, Wippold R, Torres-Vigil I, et al. Colorectal cancer screening among Latinos from U.S. cities along the Texas-Mexico border. Cancer Causes Control. 2008;19(2):195–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Yepes-Rios M, Reimann JO, Talavera AC, Ruiz de Esparza A, Talavera GA. Colorectal cancer screening among Mexican Americans at a community clinic. Am J Prev Med. 2006;30(3):204–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Randall CW, Taboada CM, Garza C, Garcia R. Colorectal cancer screening in average-risk patients: a comparison of findings based on ethnicity. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(9):1076.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Johnson-Kozlow M. Colorectal cancer screening of Californian adults of Mexican origin as a function of acculturation. J Immigr Minor Health. 2010;12(4):454–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Johnson-Kozlow M, Roussos S, Rovniak L, Hovell M. Colorectal cancer test use among Californians of Mexican origin: influence of language barriers. Ethn Dis. 2009;19(3):315–22.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pollack LA, Blackman DK, Wilson KM, Seeff LC, Nadel MR. Colorectal cancer test use among Hispanic and non-Hispanic U.S. populations. Prev Chronic Dis. 2006;3(2):A50.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Thompson B, Coronado G, Neuhouser M, Chen L. Colorectal carcinoma screening among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites in a rural setting. Cancer. 2005;103(12):2491–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kanna B, Schori M, Azeez S, Kumar S, Soni A. Colorectal tumors within an urban minority population in New York City. J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22(6):835–40.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Powe BD, Cooper DL, Harmond L, Ross L, Mercado FE, Faulkenberry R. Comparing knowledge of colorectal and prostate cancer among African American and Hispanic men. Cancer Nurs. 2009;32(5):412–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ollberding NJ, Maskarinec G, Wilkens LR, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN. Comparison of modifiable health behaviours between persons with and without cancer: the Multiethnic Cohort. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(10):1796–804.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ge G, Burke N, Somkin CP, Pasick R. Considering culture in physician—patient communication during colorectal cancer screening. Qual Health Res. 2009;19(6):778–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Haque R, Quinn VP, Habel LA, et al. Correlates of screening sigmoidoscopy use among men in a large nonprofit health plan. Cancer. 2007;110(2):275–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Monroe KR, Hankin JH, Pike MC, et al. Correlation of dietary intake and colorectal cancer incidence among Mexican-American migrants: the multiethnic cohort study. Nutr Cancer. 2003;45(2):133–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Percac-Lima S, Grant RW, Green AR, et al. A culturally tailored navigator program for colorectal cancer screening in a community health center: a randomized, controlled trial. J Gen Intern Med. 2009;24(2):211–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jerant AF, Fenton JJ, Franks P. Determinants of racial/ethnic colorectal cancer screening disparities. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(12):1317–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    DeLellis K, Rinaldi S, Kaaks RJ, Kolonel LN, Henderson B, Le Marchand L. Dietary and lifestyle correlates of plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3): the multiethnic cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(9):1444–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Shih YC, Elting LS, Levin B. Disparities in colorectal screening between US-born and foreign-born populations: evidence from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. J Cancer Educ. 2008;23(1):18–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gupta M, Holub JL, Eisen G. Do indication and demographics for colonoscopy affect completion? A large national database evaluation. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;22(5):620–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Yin D, Morris C, Allen M, Cress R, Bates J, Liu L. Does socioeconomic disparity in cancer incidence vary across racial/ethnic groups? Cancer Causes Control. 2010;21(10):1721–30.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Le H, Ziogas A, Lipkin SM, Zell JA. Effects of socioeconomic status and treatment disparities in colorectal cancer survival. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2008;17(8):1950–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rosenthal LS, Mirchandani J, Martinez M, Katcher O, Williams S. Enrollment and education initiative dramatically increases colorectal cancer screening by colonoscopy in a predominantly Latino inner city population. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101(9):1444.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Pinsky PF, Ford M, Gamito E, et al. Enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities in the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial. J Natl Med Assoc. 2008;100(3):291–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Cronan TA, Devos-Comby L, Villalta I, Gallagher R. Ethnic differences in colorectal cancer screening. J Psychosoc Oncol. 2008;26(2):63–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kanna B, Narang TK, Atwal T, Paul D, Azeez S. Ethnic disparity in mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer among inner city minority New Yorkers. Cancer. 2009;115(23):5550–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cone MM, Shoop KM, Rea JD, Lu KC, Herzig DO. Ethnicity influences lymph node resection in colon cancer. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010;14(11):1752–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Markman M, Petersen J, Montgomery R. An examination of the influence of patient race and ethnicity on expressed interest in learning about cancer clinical trials. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2008;134(1):115–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Shike M, Schattner M, Genao A, et al. Expanding colorectal cancer screening among minority women. Cancer. 2011;117(1):70–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Maxwell AE, Bastani R, Glenn BA, Mojica CM, Chang LC. An experimental test of the effect of incentives on recruitment of ethnically diverse colorectal cancer cases and their first-degree relatives into a research study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2009;18(10):2620–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Shokar NK, Nguyen-Oghalai T, Wu ZH. Factors associated with a physician’s recommendation for colorectal cancer screening in a diverse population. Fam Med. 2009;41(6):427–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Wee CC, McCarthy EP, Phillips RS. Factors associated with colon cancer screening: the role of patient factors and physician counseling. Prev Med. 2005;41(1):23–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jerant AF, Arellanes RE, Franks P. Factors associated with Hispanic/non-Hispanic white colorectal cancer screening disparities. J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23(8):1241–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Shokar NK, Carlson CA, Weller SC. Factors associated with racial/ethnic differences in colorectal cancer screening. J Am Board Fam Med. 2008;21(5):414–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Parikh A, Ramamoorthy R, Kim KH, Holland BK, Houghton J. Fecal occult blood testing in a noncompliant inner city minority population: increased compliance and adherence to screening procedures without loss of test sensitivity using stool obtained at the time of in-office rectal examination. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(6):1908–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Theuer CP, Taylor TH, Brewster WR, Anton-Culver H. Gender and race/ethnicity affect the cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006;98(1):51–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    He J, Wilkens LR, Strain DO, et al. Generalizability and epidemiologic characterization of eleven colorectal cancer GWAS Hits in multiple populations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2011;20(1):70–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Flores E, Espinoza P, Jacobellis J, Bakemeier R, Press N. The Greater Denver Latino Cancer Prevention/Control Network: prevention and research through a community-based approach. Cancer. 2006;107(8 Suppl):2034–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sweeney C, Curtin K, Murtaugh MA, Caan BJ, Potter JD, Slattery ML. Haplotype analysis of common vitamin D receptor variants and colon and rectal cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2006;15(4):744–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Schroy Iii PC, Glick JT, Robinson PA, Lydotes MA, Evans SR, Emmons KM. Has the surge in media attention increased public awareness about colorectal cancer and screening? J Community Health. 2008;33(1):1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Walsh JM, Salazar R, Kaplan C, Nguyen L, Hwang J, Pasick RJ. Healthy colon, healthy life (colon sano, vida sana): colorectal cancer screening among Latinos in Santa Clara, California. J Cancer Educ. 2010;25(1):36–42.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Walsh JME, Salazar R, Nguyen TT, et al. Healthy colon, healthy life. A novel colorectal cancer screening intervention. Am J Prev Med. 2010;39(1):1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Shah M, Zhu K, Potter J. Hispanic acculturation and utilization of colorectal cancer screening in the United States. Cancer Detect Prev. 2006;30(3):306–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Singhal S, Joseph J, Basi P, et al. Impact of co-morbidities on colorectal cancer screening decision in elderly African Americans and Hispanics. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:390.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ciampa P, Osborn C, Peterson N, Rothman R. Impact of low numeracy on colorectal cancer screening utilization: results from the 2007 health information national trends survey (HINTS). J Gen Intern Med. 2010;25:S303.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Brounts LR, Lehmann RK, Lesperance KE, Brown TA, Steele SR. Improved rates of colorectal cancer screening in an equal access population. Am J Surg. 2009;197(5):609–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Geiger TM, Miedema BW, Geana MV, Thaler K, Rangnekar NJ, Cameron GT. Improving rates for screening colonoscopy: analysis of the health information national trends survey (HINTS I) data. Surg Endosc Other Interv Tech. 2008;22(2):527–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Siegel RL, Jemal A, Ward EM. Increase in incidence of colorectal cancer among young men and women in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2009;18(6):1695–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Menon U, Szalacha LA, Belue R, Rugen K, Martin KR, Kinney AY. Interactive, culturally sensitive education on colorectal cancer screening. Med Care. 2008;46(9 Suppl 1):S44–50.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Cameron KA, Francis L, Wolf MS, Baker DW, Makoul G. Investigating Hispanic/Latino perceptions about colorectal cancer screening: a community-based approach to effective message design. Patient Educ Couns. 2007;68(2):145–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Larkey L. Las mujeres saludables: reaching Latinas for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer prevention and screening. J Community Health. 2006;31(1):69–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Soafi NM, David A, Craig TT, Michael P, Edmund BJ. Marked racial/ethnic differences in acceptance of and barriers to colorectal cancer screening in a primary care setting. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:1228.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wong RJ. Marked variations in proximal colon cancer survival by race/ethnicity within the United States. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010;44(9):625–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Srinivasan S, Kerner J. Meeting the needs of diverse populations: an overview and commentary. Med Care. 2008;46(9 Suppl 1):S30–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Gupta S, Ashfaq R, Kapur P, et al. Microsatellite instability among individuals of Hispanic origin with colorectal cancer. Cancer. 2010;116(21):4965–72.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    De Jesus-Monge WE, Gonzalez-Keelan C, Zhao R, Hamilton SR, Rodriguez-Bigas M, Cruz-Correa M. Mismatch repair protein expression and colorectal cancer in Hispanics from Puerto Rico. Fam Cancer. 2010;9(2):155–66.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Le Marchand L, Wilkens LR, Kolonel LN, Henderson BE. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism and colorectal cancer: the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(5):1198–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Makoul G, Cameron KA, Baker DW, Francis L, Scholtens D, Wolf MS. A multimedia patient education program on colorectal cancer screening increases knowledge and willingness to consider screening among Hispanic/Latino patients. Patient Educ Couns. 2009;76(2):220–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Reyes-Ortiz CA, Eschbach K, Zhang DD, Goodwin JS. Neighborhood composition and cancer among Hispanics: tumor stage and size at time of diagnosis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(11):2931–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ayanian JZ, Zaslavsky AM, Guadagnoli E, et al. Patients’ perceptions of quality of care for colorectal cancer by race, ethnicity, and language. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(27):6576–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    McGory ML, Zingmond DS, Sekeris E, Bastani R, Ko CY. A patient’s race/ethnicity does not explain the underuse of appropriate adjuvant therapy in colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006;49(3):319–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kendall KA, Lee E, Zuckerman IH, et al. Patterns of colorectal cancer screening and obesity among medicare beneficiaries. Value Health. 2009;12(7):A261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Crawley LM, Ahn DK, Winkleby MA. Perceived medical discrimination and cancer screening behaviors of racial and ethnic minority adults. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(8):1937–44.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Goldman RE, Diaz JA, Kim I. Perspectives of colorectal cancer risk and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans: stigma and misperceptions. Qual Health Res. 2009;19(11):1559–68.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Walsh JM, Karliner L, Burke N, Somkin CP, Pham LA, Pasick R. Physicians’ approaches to recommending colorectal cancer screening: a qualitative study. J Cancer Educ. 2010;25(3):385–90.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Woolcott CG, Wilkens LR, Nomura AMY, et al. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of colorectal cancer: the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2010;19(1):130–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Scheuner MT, McNeel TS, Freedman AN. Population prevalence of familial cancer and common hereditary cancer syndromes. The 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Genet Med. 2010;12(11):726–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Etzioni DA, Ponce NA, Babey SH, et al. A population-based study of colorectal cancer test use: results from the 2001 California health interview survey. Cancer. 2004;101(11):2523–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ioannou GN, Chapko MK, Dominitz JA. Predictors of colorectal cancer screening participation in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98(9):2082–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Talavera GA, Ramirez AG, Suarez L, et al. Predictors of digital rectal examination in U.S. Latinos. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(1):36–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Mobley L, Kuo TM, Urato M, Boos J, Lozano-Gracia N, Anselin L. Predictors of endoscopic colorectal cancer screening over time in 11 states. Cancer Causes Control. 2010;21(3):445–61.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Christie J, Hooper C, Redd WH, et al. Predictors of endoscopy in minority women. J Natl Med Assoc. 2005;97(10):1361–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Yost KJ, Hahn EA, Zaslavsky AM, Ayanian JZ, West DW. Predictors of health-related quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2008;6:66.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Zapatier JA, Kumar AR, Perez A, Guevara R, Schneider A. Preferences for ethnicity and sex of endoscopists in a Hispanic population in the United States. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;73(1):89–97, 97:e81–84.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Movsas B, Scott C, Watkins-Bruner D. Pretreatment factors significantly influence quality of life in cancer patients: a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;65(3):830–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Shokar NK, Carlson CA, Weller SC. Prevalence of colorectal cancer testing and screening in a multiethnic primary care population. J Community Health. 2007;32(5):311–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Wong R. Proximal tumors are associated with greater mortality in colon cancer. J Gen Intern Med. 2010;25(11):1157–63.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Nielsen SS, He Y, Ayanian JZ, et al. Quality of cancer care among foreign-born and US-born patients with lung or colorectal cancer. Cancer. 2010;116(23):5497–506.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hassan MO, Arthurs Z, Sohn VY, Steele SR. Race does not impact colorectal cancer treatment or outcomes with equal access. Am J Surg. 2009;197(4):485–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Theuer CP, Wagner JL, Taylor TH, et al. Racial and ethnic colorectal cancer patterns affect the cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening in the United States. Gastroenterology. 2001;120(4):848–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Ellison GL, Warren JL, Knopf KB, Brown ML. Racial differences in the receipt of bowel surveillance following potentially curative colorectal cancer surgery. Health Serv Res. 2003;38(6 Pt 2):1885–903.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Doubeni CA, Field TS, Buist DSM, et al. Racial differences in tumor stage and survival for colorectal cancer in an insured population. Cancer. 2007;109(3):612–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ollberding NJ, Nomura AM, Wilkens LR, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN. Racial/ethnic differences in colorectal cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study. Int J Cancer. 2010;129(8):1899–906.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Vlahov D, Ahern J, Vazquez T, et al. Racial/ethnic differences in screening for colon cancer: report from the New York Cancer Project. Ethn Dis. 2005;15(1):76–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Shavers VL. Racial/ethnic variation in the anatomic subsite location of in situ and invasive cancers of the colon. J Natl Med Assoc. 2007;99(7):733–48.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Aragones A, Schwartz MD, Shah NR, Gany FM. A randomized controlled trial of a multilevel intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening among Latino immigrants in a primary care facility. J Gen Intern Med. 2010;25(6):564–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Pinsky PF, Kramer BS, Reding D, Buys S. Reported family history of cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(9):792–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Perlman TM, Rizvon KM, Masood OK, Yang SS, Mustacchia PJ. A retrospective study of colorectal cancer in a Hispanic population. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101(9):1473.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Cress RD, Morris C, Ellison GL, Goodman MT. Secular changes in colorectal cancer incidence by subsite, stage at diagnosis, and race/ethnicity, 1992–2001. Cancer. 2006;107(Suppl):1142–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Zucker SD, Horn PS, Sherman KE. Serum bilirubin levels in the U.S. population: gender effect and inverse correlation with colorectal cancer. Hepatology. 2004;40(4):827–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Shaib YH, Rabaa E, Qaseem T. The site distribution and characteristics of colorectal adenomas in Hispanics: a comparative study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97(8):2100–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Palmer RC, Schneider EC. Social disparities across the continuum of colorectal cancer: a systematic review. Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16(1):55–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Larkey LK, Gonzalez J. Storytelling for promoting colorectal cancer prevention and early detection among Latinos. Patient Educ Couns. 2007;67(3):272–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Winkleby MA, Kim S, Urizar GG Jr, Ahn D, Jennings MG, Snider J. Ten-year changes in cancer-related health behaviors and screening practices among Latino women and men in California. Ethn Health. 2006;11(1):1–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Theuer CP, Taylor TH, Brewster WR, Campbell BS, Becerra JC, Anton-Culver H. The topography of colorectal cancer varies by race/ethnicity and affects the utility of flexible sigmoidoscopy. Am Surg. 2001;67(12):1157–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Martinez SR, Chen SL, Bilchik AJ. Treatment disparities in Hispanic rectal cancer patients: a SEER database study. Am Surg. 2006;72(10):906–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Hao Y, Jemal A, Zhang X, Ward EM. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence rates by age, race/ethnicity, and indices of access to medical care, 1995–2004 (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2009;20(10):1855–63.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Trivers KF, Shaw KM, Sabatino SA, Shapiro JA, Coates RJ. Trends in colorectal cancer screening disparities in people aged 50–64 years, 2000–2005. Am J Prev Med. 2008;35(3):185–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Maxwell AE, Crespi CM. Trends in colorectal cancer screening utilization among ethnic groups in California: are we closing the gap? Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(3):752–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Varela A, Jandorf L, Duhamel K. Understanding factors related to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among urban Hispanics: use of focus group methodology. J Cancer Educ. 2010;25(1):70–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Jandorf L, Ellison J, Villagra C, et al. Understanding the barriers and facilitators of colorectal cancer screening among low income immigrant hispanics. J Immigr Minor Health. 2010;12(4):462–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Rao RS, Graubard BI, Breen N, Gastwirth JL. Understanding the factors underlying disparities in cancer screening rates using the Peters-Belson approach: results from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey. Med Care. 2004;42(8):789–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Pollack LA, Gotway CA, Bates JH, et al. Use of the spatial scan statistic to identify geographic variations in late stage colorectal cancer in California (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2006;17(4):449–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Bastani R, Glenn BA, Maxwell AE, Ganz PA, Mojica CM, Chang LC. Validation of self-reported colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a study of ethnically diverse first-degree relatives of CRC cases. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2008;17(4):791–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Moy B, Polite BN, Halpern MT, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement: opportunities in the patient protection and affordable care act to reduce cancer care disparities. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(28):3816–24.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
  159. 159.
    Timmins CL. The impact of language barriers on the health care of Latinos in the United States: a review of the literature and guidelines for practice. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2002;47(2):80–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Wilson E, Chen AH, Grumbach K, Wang F, Fernandez A. Effects of limited English proficiency and physician language on health care comprehension. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20(9):800–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Cheng E, Chen A, Cunningham W. Primary language and receipt of recommended health care among Hispanics in the United States. J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22:283–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Hussain S, Bharadwaj M, Nasare V, et al. Human papillomavirus infection among young adolescents in India: impact of vaccination. J Med Virol. 2012;84(2):298–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abraham Aragones
    • 1
    Email author
  • Susan L. Hayes
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mei Hsuan Chen
    • 1
  • Javier González
    • 1
  • Francesca M. Gany
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Immigrant Health and Cancer Disparities ServiceMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.New York University, Wagner School of Public ServiceNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations