Advertisement

Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 119–124 | Cite as

Interpersonal Violence Among Immigrants in Portugal

  • Sónia DiasEmail author
  • Sílvia Fraga
  • Henrique Barros
Original Paper

Abstract

To assess prevalence of interpersonal violence among a mixed gender sample of immigrants in Portugal, describing the type of violence and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2008 and May 2009, evaluating a sample of 702 immigrants residing in the Lisbon region. Information was obtained by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 15.1 % (15.5 % females and 14.7 % males; p = 0.844) of the immigrants reported to be victims of at least one episode of violence during the last year, regardless of which type of violence was involved. The prevalence of intimate-partner violence was 4.1 %, and it was significantly higher among women than men (7.1 % vs. 0.9 %, respectively, p < 0.001). Women who reported being victims of violence during the previous year stated that the episodes occurred more often at home (54.4 %) with the partner as the perpetrator (43.9 %). On the other hand, male victims stated that the violent episodes occurred mostly in public spaces (40.8 %); men indicated that the perpetrator was frequently a stranger (28.6 %) or a co-worker (18.4 %). Violence is a frequent problem among both female and male immigrants living in Portugal, with different gender patterns regarding the perpetrators and settings of abuse.

Keywords

Interpersonal violence Migrants Portugal 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study has been financially supported by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (IME/SAU-ESA/81760/2006). Sílvia Fraga has a PhD grant from Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (SFRH/BD/44408/2008). The authors are very grateful to the project team members António Carlos da Silva, Maria do Rosário Horta, Maria Helena Cargaleiro, Mário Carreira, Violeta Alarcão and Miguel Lemos.

References

  1. 1.
    Kasturirangan A, Krishnan S, Riger S. The impact of culture and minority status on women’s experience of domestic violence. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2004;5(4):318–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jureidini R. Trafficking and contract migrant workers in the Middle East. Int Migr. 2010;48(4):142–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abu-habib L. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon. Gend Dev. 1998;6(1):52–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shah NM, Menon I. Violence against women migrant workers: issues, data and partial solutions. Asian Pac Migr J. 1997;6(1):5–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cox D. The vulnerability of Asian women migrant workers to a lack of protection and to violence. Asian Pac Migr J. 1997;6(1):59–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    McGuire S, Canales MK. Of migrants and metaphors: disrupting discourses to welcome the stranger. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2010;33(2):126–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McDermott S, Lee CV. Injury among male migrant farm workers in South Carolina. J Commun Health. 1990;15(5):297–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ayalon L. Evaluating the working conditions and exposure to abuse of Filipino home care workers in Israel: characteristics and clinical correlates. Int Psychogeriatr. 2009;21(1):40–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Prosman GJ, Jansen SJ, Lo Fo Wong SH, Lagro-Janssen AL. Prevalence of intimate partner violence among migrant and native women attending general practice and the association between intimate partner violence and depression. Fam Pract. 2011;28(3):267–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rodriguez R. Violence in transience: nursing care of battered migrant women. AWHONNS Clin Issues Perinat Womens Health Nurs. 1993;4(3):437–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Owoaje ET, Olaolorun FM. Intimate partner violence among women in a migrant community in southwest Nigeria. Int Q Commun Health Educ. 2005;25(4):337–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huisman KA. Wife battering in Asian American communities. Identifying the service needs of an overlooked segment of the US population. Violence Against Women. 1996;2(3):260–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jewkes RK, Levin JB, Penn-Kekana LA. Gender inequalities, intimate partner violence and HIV preventive practices: findings of a South African cross-sectional study. Soc Sci Med. 2003;56(1):125–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim-Godwin YS, Fox JA. Gender differences in intimate partner violence and alcohol use among Latino-migrant and seasonal farmworkers in rural southeastern North Carolina. J Commun Health Nurs. 2009;26(3):131–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kupiszewski M, Mattila H (eds.) Addressing the irregular employment of immigrants in the European Union: between sanctions and rights. Budapest: International Organization for Migration (IOM) Regional Mission for Central and South Eastern Europe; 2008.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dias SF, Severo M, Barros H. Determinants of health care utilization by immigrants in Portugal. BMC Health Serv Res. 2008;8:207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dias S, Gama A, Cortes M, de Sousa B. Healthcare-seeking patterns among immigrants in Portugal. Health Soc Care Community. 2011;19(5):514–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    SEF(2010) Relatório de Actividades 2009—Imigração, Fronteiras e Asilo. Departamento de Planeamento e Formação do Serviço de Estrangeiros e Fronteiras, Lisboa.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sadler GR, Lee HC, Lim RS, Fullerton J. Recruitment of hard-to-reach population subgroups via adaptations of the snowball sampling strategy. Nurs Health Sci. 2010;12(3):369–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Magnani R, Sabin K, Saidel T, Heckathorn D. Review of sampling hard-to-reach and hidden populations for HIV surveillance. AIDS. 2005;19(Suppl 2):S67–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Deren S, Shedlin M, Decena CU, Mino M. Research challenges to the study of HIV/AIDS among migrant and immigrant Hispanic populations in the United States. J Urban Health. 2005;82(2 Suppl 3):iii13–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    International Organization for Migration. International migration law: glossary on migration. Geneva: IOM; 2004.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Guruge S, Khanlou N, Gastaldo D. Intimate male partner violence in the migration process: intersections of gender, race and class. J Adv Nurs. 2009;66(1):103–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dias S, Quintal F. Cultural dynamics in mental and reproductive health of immigrant women. Eur J Public Health. 2008;18(Suppl. 1):48.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Raj A, Silverman J. Violence against immigrant women: the roles of culture, context, and legal immigrant status on intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women. 2002;8(3):367–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martin SL, Gibbs DA, Johnson RE, Sullivan K, Clinton-Sherrod M, Walters JL, et al. Substance use by soldiers who abuse their spouses. Violence Against Women. 2010;16(11):1295–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vitale S, van de Mheen D. Illicit drug use and injuries: a review of emergency room studies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;82(1):1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical & CMDT - Universidade Nova de LisboaLisboaPortugal
  2. 2.Institute of Public Health-University of Porto (ISPUP)PortoPortugal
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public HealthUniversity of Porto Medical SchoolPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations