Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 381–389 | Cite as

Tuberculosis Among Africans Living in the United States, 2000–2009

  • Bisrat K. AbrahamEmail author
  • Carla A. Winston
  • Elvin Magee
  • Roque Miramontes
Original Paper


The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has declined steadily in the United States; however, foreign-born persons are disproportionately affected. The aim of our study was to describe characteristics of TB patients diagnosed in the United States who originated from the African continent. Using data from the U.S. National Tuberculosis Surveillance System, we calculated TB case rates and analyzed differences between foreign-born patients from Africa compared with other foreign-born and U.S.-born patients. The 2009 TB case rate among Africans (48.1/100,000) was 3 times as high as among other foreign-born and 27 times as high as among U.S.-born patients. Africans living in the United States have high rates of TB disease; they are more likely to be HIV-positive and to have extrapulmonary TB. Identification and treatment of latent TB infection, HIV testing and treatment, and a high index of suspicion for extrapulmonary TB are needed to better address TB in this population.


Tuberculosis HIV infection Surveillance United States Africa 



The authors thank Kevin Cain, Michael Chen, Maryam Haddad, Carla Jeffries, Steve Kammerer, Thomas Navin, Robert Pratt, and Jim Tobias in the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The authors also acknowledge state and local health departments who collected the data used in these analyses.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (Outside the USA) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bisrat K. Abraham
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Carla A. Winston
    • 2
  • Elvin Magee
    • 2
  • Roque Miramontes
    • 2
  1. 1.Epidemic Intelligence ServiceCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)AtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Tuberculosis EliminationCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)AtlantaUSA

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