Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 427–436 | Cite as

The Border Community and Immigration Stress Scale: A Preliminary Examination of a Community Responsive Measure in Two Southwest Samples

  • Scott C. CarvajalEmail author
  • Cecilia Rosales
  • Raquel Rubio-Goldsmith
  • Samantha Sabo
  • Maia Ingram
  • Debra Jean McClelland
  • Floribella Redondo
  • Emma Torres
  • Andrea J. Romero
  • Anna Ochoa O’Leary
  • Zoila Sanchez
  • Jill Guernsey de Zapien
Original Paper


Understanding contemporary socio-cultural stressors may assist educational, clinical and policy-level health promotion efforts. This study presents descriptive findings on a new measure, the border community and immigration stress scale. The data were from two community surveys as part of community based participatory projects conducted in the Southwestern US border region. This scale includes stressful experiences reflected in extant measures, with new items reflecting heightened local migration pressures and health care barriers. Stressors representing each main domain, including novel ones, were reported with frequency and at high intensity in the predominantly Mexican-descent samples. Total stress was also significantly associated with mental and physical health indicators. The study suggests particularly high health burdens tied to the experience of stressors in the US border region. Further, many of the stressors are also likely relevant for other communities within developed nations also experiencing high levels of migration.


Acculturation Stress Health Depression Latinos/Latinas 



This research was supported by the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, NIH (P60MD000155) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC-USDHS (R21OH008747). We are grateful to all our partners, interviewers, community participants and the late Joel Meister, who provided instrumental leadership to these projects.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott C. Carvajal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cecilia Rosales
    • 1
  • Raquel Rubio-Goldsmith
    • 2
  • Samantha Sabo
    • 1
  • Maia Ingram
    • 1
  • Debra Jean McClelland
    • 1
  • Floribella Redondo
    • 3
  • Emma Torres
    • 3
  • Andrea J. Romero
    • 2
    • 4
  • Anna Ochoa O’Leary
    • 2
    • 5
  • Zoila Sanchez
    • 1
  • Jill Guernsey de Zapien
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Health Behavior Health Promotion, Arizona Prevention Research Center, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public HealthUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mexican-American StudiesUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  3. 3.Campesinos Sin FronterasSomertonUSA
  4. 4.School of Family and Consumer SciencesUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  5. 5.Coalicion de Derechos HumanosTucsonUSA

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