Factors Associated with Sexual and Reproductive Health Care by Mexican Immigrant Women in New York City: A Mixed Method Study
- 855 Downloads
Limited research has examined barriers to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for Mexican immigrant women, especially those living in the eastern United States. This mixed-method study describes SRH care utilization and barriers experienced by female Mexican immigrants living in New York City. One hundred and fifty-one women completed surveys, and twenty-three also participated in focus groups. Usage of SRH care was low apart from prenatal services. The highest barriers included cost, language differences, child care, and poor service quality. After adjusting for insurance status, barriers were associated with receipt of gynecological care from a clinic or private doctor. Greater SRH knowledge was associated with current contraceptive use and a recent PAP test. Women reported that promotoras could increase information about SRH and decrease barriers. Results suggest that in a context where services are geographically available, health care utilization is impacted by lack of knowledge and structural barriers such as language, cost, and child care. Implications for community outreach are discussed.
KeywordsSexual and reproductive health Barriers Utilization Immigrants
This research was made possible by a grant from the Sociological Initiatives Foundation. The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect those of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. The authors would like to thank Haydeé Morales, Yomaris Ashley, Shama Samant, and Meghan Weidl at Planned Parenthood of New York City, and Karina Escamilla and Josana Tonda from the Mexican Consulate in New York City.
- 1.New York City Department of City Planning Population Division. The newest New Yorkers: immigrant New York in the new millennium; 2000.Google Scholar
- 2.Bergad LW. Mexicans in New York City, 2007: an update. Latino Data Project, Report 26; Dec 2008.Google Scholar
- 3.Fry R. Latino settlement in the new century. Washington DC: Pew Hispanic Center; 2008.Google Scholar
- 4.Bergad LW. Mexicans in New York City, 1990–2005. Latino Data Project; 2007.Google Scholar
- 7.Norgren T. Mexicans in New York City: addressing the health concerns of one of the City’s fastest growing Hispanic groups. Public Health Solutions (PULSE)—Linking research and service to address public health problems. Medical Health and Research Association of New York City, vol VI: No. 4; 2007.Google Scholar
- 8.Kerker BD, et al. Women at risk: the health of women in New York City. New York: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Bureau of Epidemiology; 2005.Google Scholar
- 9.Kim M, et al. The health of immigrants in New York City. New York: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene; 2006.Google Scholar
- 11.Hernandez-Tezoquipa I, Arenas Monreal L, Treviño-Siller S. “Without money you’re nothing”: poverty and health in Mexico from women’s perspective. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem. 2005;13(5):626–33.Google Scholar
- 12.Unicef at a Glance. Mexico Statistics, Updated March. 2010. http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/mexico_statistics.html. Accessed 11 Jan 2011.
- 13.World Bank. World Development Indicators. 2011. http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators?cid=GPD_WDI. Accessed 11 Jan 2011.
- 14.Child Info.org. Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women. 2011. http://www.childinfo.org/maternal_mortality_countrydata.php. Accessed 11 Jan 2011.
- 15.Juarez F, et al. Barreras para la maternidad segura en Mexico. New York: Guttmacher Institute; 2010.Google Scholar
- 16.Kendall T. Reproductive rights violations reported by Mexican women with HIV. Health Hum Rights J. 2009;11(2):77–87.Google Scholar
- 17.WHO/ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer (HPV Information Centre). Human papillomavirus and related cancers in Mexico. Summary Report. 2010. Available at http//:www.who.int/hpvcentre. Accessed 11 Jan 2011.
- 18.Foner N. New immigrants in New York. New York: Columbia University Press; 2001.Google Scholar
- 20.Smith R. Mexican New York. California: University of California Press; 2005.Google Scholar
- 21.Becker MH. The health belief model and personal health behavior. Health Educ Monogr. 1974;2:324–508.Google Scholar
- 24.Strauss A, Corbin J. Basics of qualitative research: grounded theory procedures and techniques. London: Sage; 1990.Google Scholar
- 26.Tashakkori A, Teddlie C. Mixed methodology: combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 1998.Google Scholar
- 27.Green JC. Toward a conceptual framework for mixed-method evaluation designs. Educ Eval Policy Anal. 1989;11(3):255–74.Google Scholar
- 28.Bray JH, Maxwell SE. Multivariate analysis of variance. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications; 1985.Google Scholar
- 29.Fuentes L. Latina immigrant women’s access to abortion: insights from interviews with Latina grasstops leaders. 2010. Research brief. New York: National Latina Institute for Reproductive Health. Sept. 2010. Available at http://www.latinainstitute.org.
- 30.Juárez F, et al. Las necesidades de salud sexual y reproductive de las adolescentes en México: Retos y oportunidades. New York: Guttmacher Institute; 2010.Google Scholar