A Systematic Review of HIV/AIDS Survival and Delayed Diagnosis Among Hispanics in the United States
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HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects Hispanics. Our objective was to determine the risk of late diagnosis and rate of survival after HIV/AIDS diagnosis among Hispanics compared to other racial/ethnic groups. We performed a systematic review of the PubMed database for peer-reviewed articles published between January 2000 and September 2010. Primary outcomes included survival after HIV/AIDS diagnosis and delayed diagnoses. The definition of delayed diagnosis varied by study, ranging from concurrent HIV/AIDS diagnosis to diagnosis of AIDS within 3 years of HIV diagnosis. We found that Hispanics are at significantly greater risk for delayed diagnosis than non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic males and foreign-born Hispanics had the highest risk of late diagnosis. Available data on survival were heterogeneous, with better outcomes in some Hispanic subgroups than in others. Survival after antiretroviral initiation was similar between Hispanics and Whites. These findings emphasize the need for culturally-sensitive strategies to promote timely diagnosis of HIV infection among Hispanics and to examine the health outcomes and needs of high risk Hispanic subgroups.