Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 533–540 | Cite as

Factorial Invariance, Scale Reliability, and Construct Validity of the Job Control and Job Demands Scales for Immigrant Workers: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

  • Kaori FujishiroEmail author
  • Paul A. Landsbergis
  • Ana V. Diez-Roux
  • Karen Hinckley Stukovsky
  • Sandi Shrager
  • Sherry Baron
Original Paper


Immigrants have a different social context from those who stay in their home country or those who were born to the country that immigrants now live. Cultural theory of risk perception suggests that social context influences one’s interpretation of questionnaire items. We examined psychometric properties of job control and job demand scales with US- and foreign-born workers who preferred English, Spanish, or Chinese (n = 3,114, mean age = 58.1). Across all groups, the job control scale had acceptable Cronbach’s alpha (0.78–0.83) and equivalent factor loadings (ΔCFI < 0.01). Immigrants had low alpha (0.42–0.65) for the job demands scale regardless of language, education, or age of migration. Two job-demand items had different factor loadings across groups. Among immigrants, both scales had inconsistent associations with perceived job stress and self-rated health. For a better understanding of immigrants’ job stress, the concept of job demands should be expanded and immigrants’ expectations for job control explored.


Job stress Factor analysis Internal consistency Acculturation Health disparities 



The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (N01-HC-95159 through N01-HC-95165 and N01-HC-95169). The coding of occupational information was conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NORA FY08 CRN SLB8). The authors would like to thank the MESA participants and staff. Gilbert C. Gee, Catherine A. Heaney, and Annekatrin Hoppe provided valuable comments on earlier drafts.


The findings and conclusions in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.


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Copyright information

© US Government 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaori Fujishiro
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paul A. Landsbergis
    • 2
  • Ana V. Diez-Roux
    • 3
  • Karen Hinckley Stukovsky
    • 4
  • Sandi Shrager
    • 4
  • Sherry Baron
    • 5
  1. 1.National Institute for Occupational Safety and HealthCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.State University of New York-Downstate Medical CenterNew York CityUSA
  3. 3.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  5. 5.National Institute for Occupational Safety and HealthCincinnatiUSA

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