Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 49–60 | Cite as

Cervical Cancer Screening Among Southeast Asian American Women

Original Paper

Abstract

The incidence of cervical cancer is high among Southeast Asian American women, but their participation in preventive cervical cancer screening is alarmingly low. This paper reviews the literature on factors associated with participation in cervical cancer screening among women of Vietnamese, Cambodian and Hmong descent in the United States. These factors include acculturation, age, marital status, knowledge about cervical cancer, apprehension about cervical cancer screening, financial concerns, access to health care, and physician characteristics and recommendation. Suggestions for future research include the need to investigate the role of physicians treating Southeast Asian American women, the need for more extensive up-to-date studies on the current generation of young Southeast Asian American women, and the use of more advanced assessments of acculturation. Overall, much more work is needed in order to deepen our understanding of the various ways to improve the rate of cervical cancer screening among Southeast Asian American women.

Keywords

Southeast Asian American women Cervical cancer Cervical cancer screening Pap testing 

References

  1. 1.
    Xu Y, Ross C, Ryan R, Wang B. Cancer risk factors among Southeast Asian American residents of the U.S. central gulf coast. Public Health Nurs. 2005;22:119–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010: Midcourse review. 2009. http://www.healthypeople.gov/data/midcourse/html/default.htm#FocusAreas. Accessed 03 September 2009.
  3. 3.
    American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures 2005. 2009. http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/CAFF2005f4PWSecured.pdf. Accessed 29 September 2009.
  4. 4.
    Dinh KT. The A-B-C in clinical practice with Southeast Asians: basic understanding of migration and resettlement history. In: Handbook of mental health and acculturation in Asian American families. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, Inc.; 2009. p. 123–141.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    McCracken M, Olsen M, Chen MS, et al. Cancer incidence, mortality, and associated risk factors among Asian Americans of Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese ethnicities. CA Cancer J Clin. 2007;57:190–205.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Saslow D, Runowicz CD, Solomon D, et al. American Cancer Society guideline for the early detection of cervical neoplasia and cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 2002;52:342–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG practice bulletin No. 109: Cervical cytology screening. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114(6):1409–20.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Developing Healthy People 2020. 2009. http://www.healthypeople.gov/HP2020/default.asp. Accessed 23 December 2009.
  9. 9.
    American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures 2009. 2009. http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/500809web.pdf. Accessed 08 September 2009.
  10. 10.
    American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures 2004. 2009. http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/CAFF_finalpwsecured.pdf. Accessed 02 August 2009.
  11. 11.
    Ho V, Yamal JM, Atkinson EN, Basen-Engquist K, Tortolero-Luna G, Follen M. Predictors of breast and cervical screening in Vietnamese women in Harris County, Houston, Texas. Cancer Nurs. 2005;28(2):119–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jenkins CNH, Le T, McPhee SJ, Stewart S, Ha NT. Health care access and preventive care among Vietnamese immigrants: do traditional beliefs and practices pose barriers? Soc Sci Med. 1996;43(7):1049–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McPhee SJ, Bird JA, Davis T, Ha NT, Jenkins CNH, Le B. Barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese-American women. Am J Prev Med. 1997;13(3):205–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    McPhee SJ, Stewart S, Brock KC, Bird JA, Jenkins CNH, Pham GQ. Factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening practices among Vietnamese American women. Cancer Detect Prev. 1997;21(6):510–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pham CT, McPhee SJ. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of breast and cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. J Cancer Educ. 1992;7(4):305–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Taylor VM, Schwartz SM, Yasui Y, et al. Pap testing among Vietnamese women: health care system and physician factors. J Commun Health. 2004;29(6):437–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Taylor VM, Yasui Y, Burke N, et al. Pap testing adherence among Vietnamese American women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(4):613–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yi JK. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening behavior among Vietnamese women. J Commun Health. 1994;19(3):189–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yi JK. Acculturation and Pap smear screening practices among college-aged Vietnamese women in the United States. Cancer Nurs. 1998;21(5):335–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kem R, Chu KC. Cambodian cancer incidence rates in California and Washington, 1998–2002. Cancer. 2007;110:1370–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    American Cancer Society. California cancer facts and figures 2009. 2009. http://www.ccrcal.org/PDF/ACS2009.pdf. Accessed 02 August 2009.
  22. 22.
    Taylor VM, Jackson CJ, Scwhartz SM, Yasui Y, Tu SP, Thompson B. Cervical cancer control in a Cambodian American population. Asian Am Pac Isl J Health. 1998;6(2):368–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yi JK. Factors affecting cervical screening behavior among Cambodian women in Houston, Texas. Fam Commun Health. 1996;18(4):49–57.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kelly AW, Chacori MDMF, Wollan PC, et al. A program to increase breast and cervical cancer screening for Cambodian women in a midwestern community. Mayo Clin Proc. 1996;71(5):437–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yang RC, Mills PK, Riordan DG. Cervical cancer among Hmong women in California, 1988 to 2000. Am J Prev Med. 2004;27(2):132–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ross JA, Xie Y, Kiffmeyer WR, Bushhouse S, Robison LL. Cancer in the Minnesota Hmong population. Cancer. 2003;97:3076–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mills PK, Yang R. Cancer incidence in the Hmong of central California, United States, 1987–94. Cancer Causes Control. 1997;8:705–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yang RC, Mills PK, Dodge JL. Cancer screening, reproductive history, socioeconomic status and anticipated cancer-related behavior among Hmong adults. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006;7:79–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Taylor VM, Schwartz SM, Jackson JC, et al. Cervical cancer screening among Cambodian-American women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999;8:541–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jackson JC, Taylor VM, Chitnarong K, et al. Development of a cervical cancer control intervention program for Cambodian American women. J Commun Health. 2000;25(5):359–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tanjasiri SP, Tran JH, Kagawa-Singer M, et al. Exploring access to cancer control services for Asian-American and Pacific Islander communities in southern California. Ethn Dis. 2004;14(3):S1–14.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nguyen TT, McPhee SJ, Nguyen T, Lam T, Mock J. Predictors of cervical Pap smear screening awareness, intention, and receipt among Vietnamese-American women. Am J Prev Med. 2002;23(3):207–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Do HH, Taylor VM, Burke N, Yasui Y, Schwartz SM, Jackson JC. Knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors, traditional health beliefs, and Pap testing among Vietnamese American women. J Immigr Health. 2007;9:110–4.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schulmeister L, Lifsey DS. Cervical cancer screening knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs of Vietnamese women. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1999;26(5):879–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lai KQ, Nguyen TT, Mock J, McPhee SJ, Doan HT, Pham TH. Increasing Vietnamese-American physicians’ knowledge of cervical cancer and Pap testing: impact of continuing medical education programs. Ethn Dis. 2004;14:122–6.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Behbakht K, Lynch A, Teal S, Degeest K, Massad S. Social and cultural barriers to Papanicolaou test screening in an urban population. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104:1335–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bronfenbrenner U. The ecology of human development: experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1979.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dalton JH, Elias MJ, Wandersman A. Community psychology: linking individuals and communities. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth; 2007.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kwon HT, Solomon FM, Nguyen S. A needs assessment of barriers to cervical cancer screening in Vietnamese American health care providers. California J Health Promot. 2006;4(3):146–56.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chen MS, Hawks BL. A debunking of the myth of health Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Am J Health Promot. 1995;9(4):261–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Han M. Relationship among perceived parental trauma, parental attachment, and sense of coherence in Southeast Asian American college students. J Family Social Work. 2005;9(2):25–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Spencer JH, Le TN. Parent refugee status, immigration stressors, and Southeast Asian youth violence. J Immigr Health. 2006;8:359–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dinh KT, Nguyen HH. The effects of acculturative variables on Asian American parent-child relationships. J Social Personal Relatsh. 2006;23(3):407–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ying YW, Han M. The longitudinal effect of intergenerational gap in acculturation on conflict and mental health in Southeast Asian American adolescents. Am J Orthopsychiatr. 2007;77:61–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HPV vaccine information for young women. 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine-young-women.htm. Accessed 24 August 2009.
  46. 46.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reports of health concerns following HPV vaccination. 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Vaccines/HPV/gardasil.html. Accessed 26 December 2009.
  47. 47.
    Caskey R, Lindau S, Alexander G. Knowledge and early adoption of the HPV vaccine among girls and young women: results of a national survey. J Adolesc Health. 2009;45(5):453–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lim KV, Heiby E, Brislin R, Griffin B. The development of the Khmer acculturation scale. Int J Intercult Relat. 2002;26:653–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tsai JL, Ying YW, Lee PA. The meaning of “being Chinese” versus “being American”: variation among Chinese American young adults. J Cross Cult Psychol. 2000;31:302–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dinh KT, Weinstein TL, Kim SY, Ho IK. Acculturative and psychosocial predictors of academic-related outcomes among Cambodian American high school students. J Southeast Asian Am Educ Advancement. 2008;3:1–23.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ying YW, Han M. Cultural orientation in Southeast Asian American young adults. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psyc. 2008;14:29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Clark MA, Rakowski W, Ehrich B. Breast and cervical cancer screening: associations with personal, spouse’s, and combined smoking status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000;9:513–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chan NL, Yasui Y, Thompson B, et al. Secondhand smoke in the home and Pap testing among Vietnamese American women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007;8:178–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC. Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: toward an integrative model of change. J Counsel Clin Psychol. 1983;51:390–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tung WC, Nguyen DHT, Tran DN. Applying the transtheoretical model to cervical cancer screening in Vietnamese-American women. Int Nurs Rev. 2008;55:73–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Taylor VM, Jackson JC, Yasui Y, et al. Pap testing stages of adoption among Cambodian immigrants. Asian Am Pac Isl J Health. 2000;8(1):59–68.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nguyen TUN, Tanjasiri SP, Kagawa-Singer M, Tran JH, Foo MA. Community health navigators for breast and cervical cancer screening among Cambodian and Laotian women: intervention strategies and relationship-building processes. Health Promot Pract. 2008;9:257–68.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Nguyen TT, McPhee SJ, Bui-Tong N, et al. Community-based participatory research increases cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese-Americans. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2006;17:31–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Machloch J, Jackson JC, Chitnarong K, Sam R, Ngo LS, Taylor VM. Bridging cultures through the development of a cervical cancer screening video for Cambodian American women in the United States. J Cancer Educ. 1999;14:109–14.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Massachusetts LowellLowellUSA

Personalised recommendations