Anthropometric Characteristics of Pakistani School Children Living in Bahrain

Original Paper
  • 78 Downloads

Abstract

Background This survey was designed to study the gender difference in physical growth of 1113 Pakistani children (646 male and 467 female) living in Bahrain and to compare growth with their Bahraini and Pakistani counterparts. Methods Measurements of height, weight, mid-arm circumference, biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfold thickness were carried out using the standard methods, and the median values for height and weight were plotted against the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) standard charts. Results The median weight of the boys was below the 25th percentile rising slightly above the 25th percentile at 12 years. The median height was also below the 25th percentile touching the 25th percentile only between 10–12 and 17 years. In girls, the median weight touched the 50th percentile at 15 years, followed by a fall to the 5th percentile between 16 and 17 years of age while the median height touched the 5th percentile at 17 years of age. The median body mass index (BMI) values were above the 50th percentile between 13 and 15 years in boys, and below the 50th percentile at all ages in girls. The median triceps skinfold thickness in boys was above the 50th percentile between 10–15 and 17 years in boys and in girls it was mostly below the 50th percentile rising above 50th percentile at 14, 15 and 17 years of age. Conclusion The height and weight of the study group was similar to that of children residing in Pakistan for both the genders, but lower than their Bahraini counterparts for most age groups compared. Furthermore, Pakistani boys residing in Bahrain were taller after 14 years of age and heavier after 16 years of age compared to their female counterparts.

Keywords

Anthropometry Body weight Obesity Skinfold Thickness BMI Bahrain 

References

  1. 1.
    Musaiger AO. Diet and prevention of coronary heart disease in the Arab Middle East countries. Med Princ Pract. 2002;11(2S):9–16. doi:10.1159/000066415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Central Statistics Organization (CSO). National census 2001. Kingdom of Bahrain: Central Statistics Organization. 2001.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Caballero B, Himes JH, Lohman T, Davis SM, Stevens J, Evans M, et al. Body composition and overweight prevalence in 1704 schoolchildren from 7 American Indian communities. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:308–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aminorroaya A, Amini M, Naghdi H, Zadeh AH. Growth charts of heights and weights of male children and adolescents of Isfahan Iran. J Health Popul Nutr. 2003;21:341–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rogol AD, Clark PA, Roemmich JN. Growth and pubertal development in children and adolescents: effects of diet and physical activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:S521–8.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sorva R, Lankinen S, Tolppanen ES, Perheentupa J. Variation of growth in height and weight of children. II. After infancy. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1990;79:498–506. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.1990.tb11503.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eid N, et al. Nutritional anthropometry of school children in Kuwait. Nutr Rep Int. 1986;33:253–60.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Al-Sendi AM, Shetty P, Musaiger AO. Anthropometric and body composition indicators of Bahraini adolescents. Ann Hum Biol. 2003;30:367–79. doi:10.1080/0301446031000091792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Musaiger AO, Gregory WB. Profile of body composition of school children (6–18y) in Bahrain. Int J Obes. 2000;24:1093–6. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fidanza F. Anthropometric methodology. In: Fidanza F, editor. Nutritional assessment: a manual for population studies. London: Chapman & Hall; 1991. p. 1–43.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jelliffe DB. Assessment of the nutritional status in the community (with special reference to field surveys in developing regions of the world). Geneva: World Health Organization; 1966. p. 50–51.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    National Center for Health Statistics- 2000 CDC Growth charts. U.S. Growth curves for children, birth 6–18 years. Retrieved on 15 Nov 2005 from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/nhanes/growthcharts/charts.htm.
  13. 13.
    Must A, Dallal GE, Dietz WH. Reference data for obesity: 85th and 95th percentiles of body mass index (wt/ht2) and skinfold thickness. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:839–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    AcArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise physiology. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger; 1986.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gibson RS. Principles of nutritional assessment. New York: Oxford University press; 1990.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Akhtar MS, Bhatty N, Sattar M, Javed MT. Comparison of nutritional status in children of different socio-economic statuses. Med J Islam Acad Sci. 2001;14:97–102.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Din ZU, Paracha PI. Assessment of nutritional status of adolescent boys from public and private schools of Peshawar. Pak J Med Res. 2003;42:129–33. Available at http://www.pmrc.org.pk/nutritional.htm.
  18. 18.
    Khan AZ, Singh NI, Hasan SB, Sinha SN, Zaheer M. Anthropometric measurements in rural school children. J R Soc Health. 1990;110:184–6. doi:10.1177/146642409011000512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH, Marshall WA, Carter BS. Prediction of adult height, bone age, and occurrence of menarche, at age 4–16 with allowance for midparental height. Arch Dis Child. 1975;50:14–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Blondell RD, Foster MB. Dave KC: disorders of puberty. Am Fam Physician. 1999;60(209–18):223–4.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    O’Sullivan AL, Krisman-Scott, MA. ANA continuing education/adolescent health. Retrieved on 18 Mar 2007 from http://www.nursingworld.org/mods/archive/mod4/ceahref.htm.
  22. 22.
    Al-Sekait MA, AlNasser AN, Bamgboye EA. The growth pattern of school children in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 1992;13:141–6.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    WHO (World Health Organization). Measuring changes in nutritional status. Geneva: WHO. 1983.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Al-Shoshan AAR. The growth pattern of selected primary school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 1993;14:53–8.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Aziz S, Puri DA, Hossain KZ, Hussain F, Naqvi SA, Rizvi SA. Anthropometric indices of middle socio-economic class school children in Karachi compared to NCHS standards-a pilot study. J Pak Med Assoc. 2006;56:264–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Delemarre-van de Waal HA. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development. Environ Health Perspect. 1993;101:39–44. doi:10.2307/3431374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Musaiger AO, Gregory WB, Haas JD. Growth patterns of school children in Bahrain. Ann Hum Biol. 1989;16:155–67. doi:10.1080/03014468700007002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Black MM, Krishnakumar A. Predicting longitudinal growth curves of height and weight using ecological factors for children with and without early growth deficiency. J Nutr. 1999;129:539–43.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rona RJ, Chinn S. National study of health and growth: social and biological factors associated with weight-for-height and triceps skinfold of children from ethnic groups in England. Ann Hum Biol. 1987;14:231–48. doi:10.1080/03014468700009001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tanner JM, Eveleth PB. Urbanization and growth. In: Harrison GA, Gibson JB, editors. Man in urban environments. Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1976. p. 44–66.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bielicki T, Waliszko H. Stature, upward social mobility and the nature of statural differences between social classes. Ann Hum Biol. 1992;19:589–93. doi:10.1080/03014469200002402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hawamdeh H, Spencer N. Work, family socioeconomic status, and growth among working boys in Jordan Community child health, public health and epidemiology. Arch Dis Child. 2001;84:311–14. doi:10.1136/adc.84.4.311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fikree F, Rahbar M, Berendes H. Risk factors for stunting and wasting at age 6, 12 and 24 months for squatter children of Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2000;50:341–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Akram DS, Agboatwala M. Growth parameters of Pakistani children. Indian J Pediatr. 1991;58:825–32. doi:10.1007/BF02825444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kelly AM, Shaw NJ, Thomas AMC, Pynsent PB, Baker DJ. Growth of Pakistani children in relation to the 1990 growth standards. Arch Dis Child. 1997;77:401–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gatrad AR, Birch N, Hughes M. Preschool weights and heights of Europeans and five subgroups of Asians in Britain. Arch Dis Child. 1994;71:207–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Parvez Hossain MD, Kawar B, El Nahas M. Obesity and diabetes in the developing world—a growing challenge. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:213–15. doi:10.1056/NEJMp068177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bhansali A, Nagaprasad G, Agarwal A, Dutta P, Bhadada S. Does body mass index predict overweight in native Asian Indians? A study from a North Indian population. Ann Nutr Metab. 2006;50:66–73. doi:10.1159/000089673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Saxena S, Ambler G, Cole TJ, Majeed A. Ethnic group differences in overweight and obese children and young people in England: cross sectional survey. Arch Dis Child. 2004;89:30–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Receveur O, Boulay M, Kuhnlein HV. Decreasing traditional food use affects diet quality for adult Dene/Métis in 16 communities of the Canadian Northwest territories. J Nutr. 1997;127:2179–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Musaiger AO. Overweight and obesity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: can we control it? East. Mediterr. Health J.. 2004;10:789–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Scientific Studies DivisionBahrain Centre for Studies and ResearchManamaKingdom of Bahrain

Personalised recommendations