Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 347–358 | Cite as

Time spent in the united states and breast cancer screening behaviors among ethnically diverse immigrant women: Evidence for acculturation?

  • William Michael Brown
  • Nathan S. Consedine
  • Carol Magai
Original Paper

Abstract

The current study was designed to investigate the relations between time spent in the United States and breast cancer screening in a large sample (N=915) of ethnically diverse immigrant women living in New York City. Previous research among Hispanic women has suggested that acculturation positively influences health beliefs and preventive health behaviors. However, research has not yet extended to other growing immigrant groups, including women from Haiti and the English-speaking Caribbean, and has not tested whether time spent in the United States differentially impacts breast screening across groups that are known to vary in their health beliefs. As expected, time spent in the United States was associated with a greater number of mammograms and clinical breast exams. Importantly, these relations held even when controlling for (a) age, income, education, marital status; (b) morbidity, health insurance, physician's recommendation, physical exams; and (c) ethnicity. Moreover, time spent in the United States interacted with being Haitian to predict the number of clinical breast exams. Even though Haitians were less likely to utilize breast cancer screening overall, time spent in the United States had a stronger effect on the number of clinical breast exams for Haitian women. Results are discussed in terms of the ethnic-specificity of health beliefs, how they may change over time and their implications for preventive health behaviors.

Keywords

Health Breast cancer screening Acculturation Enculturation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

WMB was supported by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship (CANADA). This research was supported by grants from the National Institute on Aging (KO7 AG00921), the National Institutes General Medical Science (2SO6 GM54650), and the National Cancer Institute (1P20 CA 91372) to CM.

References

  1. 1.
    Howe HL, Wingo PA, Thun MJ, et al.: Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer (1973 through 1998), featuring cancers with recent increasing trends. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93:824–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jemal A, Murray T, Ward E, Samuels A, Tiwari RC, Ghafoor A, Feuer EJ, Thun MJ: Cancer statistics, 2005. CA Cancer J Clin 2005; 55:10–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vernon S, Tilley B, Neale AV, Steinfeldt L: Ethnicity, survival, and delay in seeking treatment or symptoms of breast cancer. Cancer 1985; 55:1563–1571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Miller BA, Kolonel LN, Bernstein L, et al.: Racial/ethnic patterns of cancer in the United States1988–1992. National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health publication 96-4104. Bethesda, Maryland, 1996Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hotes JL, Wu XC, McLaughlin CC, et al.: Cancer in North America, 1996–2000, Vol. 2: Mortality. Springfield, IL: North American Association of Central Cancer Reistries; 2003Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hollmann FW, Mulder TJ, Kallan JE: “Methodology and Assumptions for the Population Projections of the United States: 1999–2100: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division Working Paper No. 38. Issued January 13, 2000. Available at http://www.census.gov/population/www/projections/natproj.htmlGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Portes A, Fernandez-Kelly P, Haller WJ: Segmented Assimilation on the Ground: The New Second Generation in Early Adulthood. Department of Sociology, Princeton University, The Center for Migration and Development Working Paper 2003; #03–11.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Okwumabua JO, Baker FM, Wong SP, Pilgram BO: Characteristics of depressive symptoms in elderly urban and rural African Americans. J Gerontol 1997; 52A:M241–M246Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eley JW, Hill HA, Chen VW, Austin DF, Wesley MN, Muss HB, Greenberg RS, Goates RJ, Correa P, Redmon CK, Hunter CP, Herman AA, Kurman R, Blacklow R, Shapiro S, Edwards BK: Racial differences in survival from breast cancer. JAMA 1994; 272:947–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Giuliano A, Alberts D: Arch Intern Med 1994; 154:1057–1058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dignam JJ: Difference in breast cancer prognosis among African-American and Caucasian women. CA: Cancer J Clin 2000; 50:50–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Millar AB, To T, Baines CJ, Wall C: The Canadian National Breast Screening Study-1: Breast cancer mortality after 11 to 16 years of follow-up. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137:305–312Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Burns RB, McCarthy EP, Freund KM, Marwill SL, Schwartz M, Ash A, et al.: Black women receive less mammography care even with similar use of primary care. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125:173–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tabar L, Yen MF, Vitak B, Chen HH, Smith RA, Duffy SW. Mammography service screening andmortality in breast cancer patients: 20-year follow-up before and after introduction of screening. Lancet 2003; 361:1405–1410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wingo PA, Ries LA, Rosenberg HM, Miller DS, Edwards BK: Cancer incidence and mortality, 1973–1995; A report card for the U.S. Cancer 1998; 82:1197–1207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Champion VL, Mennnon U: Predicting mammography and breast self-examination in African American women. Cancer Nurs 1997; 20:315–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Glanz K, Resch N, Lerman C, Rimer BK: Black-white differences in factors influencing mammography use among employed female health maintenance organization members. Eth Health 1996; 1:207–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lannin DR, Mathews HF, Mitchell J, Swanson MS, Swanson FH, Edwards MS: Influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors on racial differences in late-stage presentation of breast cancer. JAMA 1998; 279:1801–1807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baquet CR, Commiskey P: Socioeconomic factors and breast carcinoma in multicultural women. Cancer 2000; 88:1256–1264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baquet CR, Horm JW, Gibbs T, Greenwald P: Socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence among blacks and whites. J Natl Cancer Inst 1991; 83:551–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Biffl WL, Myers A, Franciose RJ, Gonzalez RJ, Darnell D: Is breast cancer in young Latinas a difference disease? Am J Surg 2001; 182:596–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Boyer-Chammard A, Taylor TH, Anton-Culver H: Survival differences in breast cancer among racial/ethnic groups: A population-based study. Cancer Detect Prev 1999; 23: 463–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bradley CJ, Given CW, Roberts C: Race, socioeconomic status, and breast cancer treatment and survival. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94:490–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Haynes MA, Smedley BD, eds.: The Unequal Burden of Cancer: An Assessment of NIH Research and Programs for Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Underserved, 1999Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Edwards NI, Jones DA: Uptake of breast cancer screening in older women. Age Aging 2000; 29:131–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martin L, Calle E, Wingo P, Heath C: Comparison of mammography and Pap test use from the 1987 and 1992 National Health Interview Surveys: Are we closing the gaps. Am J Prev Med 1996; 12:82–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Phillips JM, Wilbur J: Adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines among African American women of differing employment status. Cancer Nurs 1995; 18:258–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Potosky AL, Breen N, Graubard BI, Parsons PE: The association between health care coverage and the use of cancer screening tests: Results from the 1992 National Health Interview Survey. Med Care (Philadelphia) 1998; 36:257–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Breen N, Kessler L: Changes in the use of screening mammography: Evidence from the 1987 and 1990 National Health Interview Surveys. Am J Public Health 1994; 84:62–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Burack RC, Liang J: The early detection of cancer in the primary care setting: Factors associated with the acceptance and completion of recommended procedures. Prev Med 1987; 16:739–751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Consedine NS, Magai C, Neugut A: The contribution of emotional characteristics to breast cancer screening. Prev Med 2004; 38:64–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hayward RA, Shapiro MF, Freeman HE, Corey CR: Who gets screened for cervical and breast cancer? Results from a new national survey. Arch Intern Med 1988; 148:1177–1181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Blustein J: Medicare coverage, supplemental insurance, and the use of mammography but older women. N Engl J Med 1995; 332:1138–1142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Brown RL, Baumann LJ, Helberg CP, Han Y, Fontana SA, Love RR: The simultaneous analysis of patient, physician and group practice influences on annual mammography performance. Soc Sci Med 1996; 43:315–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Grady KE, Lemkau JP, McVay JM, Reisine ST: The importance of physician encouragement in breast cancer screening of older women. Prev Med 1992; 21:766–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lerman C, Rimer B, Trock B, Balshem A, Engstrom PF: Factors associated with repeat adherence to breast cancer screening. Prev Med 1990; 19:279–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fox SA, Murata PJ, Stein JA: The impact of physician compliance on screening mammography for older women. Arch Intern Med 1991; 151:50–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Friedman LC, Nelson DV, Webb JA, Hoffman LP, Baer PE: Dispositional optimism, self efficacy, and health beliefs as predictors of breast self-examination. Am J Prev Med 1994; 10:130–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Consedine NS, Magai C, Spiller R, Conway F, Neugut AI: Breast cancer knowledge and beliefs in subpopulations of African American and African Caribbean women. Am J Health Behav 2004; 28:260–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Borrayo EA, Jenkins SR: Feeling healthy: So why should Mexican-descent women screen for breast cancer. Qual Health Res 2001; 11:812–823PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rimer BK: Current Use and How to Increase Mammography Screening in Women. Surg Oncol Clin North America 1997; 6:203–211Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Morisky DE, Fox SA, Murata PJ, Stein JA: The role of needs assessment in designing a community-based mammography education program for urban women. Health Educ Res 1989; 4:469–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Richardson JL, Marks G, Solis J, Collins L, Birba L, Hisserich JC: Frequency and adequacy of breast cancer screening among elderly Hispanic women. Prev Med 1987;16:761–774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Borrayo EA, Jenkins SR: Feeling indecent: Breast cancer screening resistance of Mexican decent women. J Health Psychol 2001; 6:537–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tang TS, Solomon LJ, McCracken LM: Cultural barriers to mammography, clinical breastexam, and breast self-exam among Chinese-American women 60 and older. Prev Med 2000; 31:575–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pérez-Stable EJ, Otero-Sabogal R, Sabogal F, McPhee SJ, Hiatt RA: Self-reported use of cancer screening tests among Latinos and Anglos. Arch Intern Med 1994; 154:1073–1081PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Popkin BM, Udry JR: Adolescent obesity increases significantly in second and third generation U.S. immigrants: The national longitudinal study of adolescent health. J Nutr 1998; 128:701–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Aldrich L, Variyam JN: Acculturation erodes the diet quality of US Hispanics. Food Review 2000; 23:51–55Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Magai C, Consedine NS, Conway F, Neugut A, Culver C: Diversity matters: Unique populations of older women and breast cancer screening. Cancer 2004; 100(11):2300–2307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    O’Malley AS, Mandelblatt J, Johnson A, Kerner J: Acculturation and use of breast cancer screening among urban Hispanic women. Am J Public Health 1999; 89:219–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Redfield R, Linton R, Herskovits MJ: Memorandum for the Study of Acculturation. Am Anthropologist 1936; 38:149–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kroeber AL: Anthropology. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co.; 1948Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cronk L: From Mukogodo to Maasai: Ethnicity and Cultural Change in Kenya. Westview Case Studies in Anthropology. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2004Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lee M: Breast and cervical cancer early detection in Chinese American women. Asian Am Pacific Islander J Health 1998; 6:351–357Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Thompson HS, Valdimarsdottir HB, Winkel G, Jandorf L, Redd W: The group-basedmedical mistrust scale: Psychometric properties and association with breast cancer screening. Prev Med 2004; 38:209–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Razem O, Zeeb H: Inequity, acculturation and the ‘Mediterranean paradox.’ Int J Epidemiol 2004; 33:1411–1412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Coe K, Harmon MP, Castro FG, Campbell N, Mayer JA, Elder JP: Breast self-examination: Knowledge and practices of Hispanic women in two southwestern metropolitan areas. J Community Health 1994; 19:433–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Elder JP, Castro FG, de Moor C, Mayer J, Candelaria JI, Campbell N, Talavera G, Ware LM: Differences in cancer-risk-related behaviors in Latino and Anglo adults. Prev Med 1991; 20:751–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Solis JM, Marks G, Garcia M, Shelton D: Acculturation, access to care, and use of preventiveservices by Hispanics: Findings from HHANES 1982–84. Am J Public Health 1990; 80:11—19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Suarez L: Pap smear and mammogram screening in Mexican-American women: The effects ofacculturation. Am J Public Health 1994; 84:742–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Borrayo EA, Jenkins SR: Feeling frugal: Socioeconmic status, acculturation, and cultural health beliefs among women of Mexican descent. Cultur Divers Eth Minor Psychol 2003; 9:197–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Stein JA, Fox SA: Brief communication: Language preference as an indication ofmammography use among Hispanic women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1990; 82:1715–1716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mandelblatt JS, Gold K, O’Malley AS, et al.: Breast and cervix cancer screening among multiethnic women: Role of age, health and source of care. Prev Med 1999; 28:418–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Borrayo EA, Guarnaccia CA: Differences in Mexican-born and U.S.-born women of Mexican descent regarding factors related to breast cancer screening behaviors. Health Care Women Int 2000: 21:599–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cavalli-Sforza LL: Genes, peoples, and languages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94:7719–7724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cohen D, Nisbett RE, Bowdle BF, Schwarz N: Insult, aggression, and the southern culture of honor: An “experimental ethnography.” J Pers Soc Psychol 1996; 70:945–959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Herskovits JM: Man and his Works, the Science of Cultural Anthropology. New York: Knopf, 1948Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Portes A, Zhou M: Should immigrants assimilate? Public Interest 1994; 116:18–34Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Consedine NS, Magai C, Cohen C, Gillespie M: Ethnic variation in the impact of negative emotion and emotion inhibition in the health of older adults. J Gerontol, Psychol Sci 2002; 57B:P1–P13Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wierzbicka A: Russian emotional expression. Ethos 1998; 26:456–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wierzbicka A: Emotions across languages and cultures: Diversity and universals. Paris: Cambridge University Press, 1999Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wilk R: The Haitian refugee: Concerns for health care providers. Soc. Work Health Care 1986; 11:61–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Taylor KL, Kerner JF, Gold KF, Madelblatt JS: Ever vs. never smoking among an urban, multiethnic sample of Haitian-, Caribbean-, and U.S.-born Blacks. Prev Med 1997; 26:855–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Martin MA, Rissmiller P, Beal JA: Health-illness beliefs and practices of Haitians with HIV disease living in Boston. JANAC 1995; 6:45–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    DeSantis L: Haitian immigrant concepts of health. Health Values 1993; 17:3–16Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Harris K: Beliefs and practices among Haitian American women in relation to childbearing. J Nurse-Midwifery 1987; 32:149–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lefley HP: Psychotherapy and cultural adaptation in the Caribbean. Int J Group Tensions 1981; 11:3–16Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Magai C, Cohen C, Milburn N, Thorpe B, McPherson R, Peralta D: Attachment styles in older Eurpoean American and African American adults. J Gerontol: Series B: Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2001; 56B:S28–S35Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Althausen L: Russian families. In McGoldrick M, Giordano J, Pearce JK, eds. Ethnicity and family therapy, 2nd edn. New York: Guilford, 1996:680–687Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Margonoff PP, Folwarski J: Russian/Ukrainian families: An overview. In McGoldrick M, Giordano J, Pearce JK eds. Ethnicity and Family Therapy, 2nd edn. New York: Guilford, 1996:658–672Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Flaherty JA, Gaviria FM, Pathak D, et al.: Developing instruments for cross-culture psychiatric research. J Nervous Mental Disease 1988; 176:257–263Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Buelow JR, Zimmer AH, Mellor MJ, Sax R: Mammography screening for older minority women. J Appl Gerontol 1998; 17:133–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Etzi S, Lane DS, Grimson R: The use of mammography vans by low-income women: The accuracy of self-reports. Am J Public Health 1994; 84:107–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gordon NP, Hiatt RA, Lampert DI: Concordance of self-reported data and medical records audit for six cancer screening procedures. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993; 85:566–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Golden RR, Teresi JA, Gurland BJ: Development of indicator scales for the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (CARE) interview schedule. J Gerontol 1984; 39:138–146Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Teresi JA, Golden RR, Gurland BJ, Wilder DE, Bennett RG: Construct validity of indicator scales developed from the comprehensive assessment and referral evaluation interview schedule. J Gerontol 1984; 39:147–157Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS: Using Multivariate Statistics, 4th edn. New York: Harper Collins, 2001Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Waters MC: Ethnic identities of second-generation black immigrants in New York City. Int Migrat Rev 1994; 28:795–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Epstein J: AIDS, stigma and narratives of containment. Am Imago 1992; 49:293–310Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Santana M-A, Dancy BL: The stigma of being named “AIDS carriers” on Haitian-American women. Health Care Women Int 2000; 21(3):161–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Zhou M: Growing up American: The challenge confronting immigrant children and children ofimmigrants. Annu Rev Soc 1997; 23:63–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Michael Brown
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nathan S. Consedine
    • 1
  • Carol Magai
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Cognition and Neuroimaging School of Social Sciences and LawBrunel University West LondonUxbridge MiddlesexUnited Kingdom
  2. 2.Department of Anthropology, Center for Human Evolutionary StudiesRutgers UniversityNew JerseyUSA

Personalised recommendations