Advertisement

From Family Support to Goal-Directed Behaviors: Examining the Mediating Role of Cognitive Well-Being Factors

  • Xu JiangEmail author
  • Dexin Shi
  • Allyson K. Topps
  • Caché M. Archer
Research Paper
  • 54 Downloads

Abstract

Based on the engine of well-being model (Jayawickreme et al. in Rev Gen Psychol 16(4):327, 2012), we examined the potential mediating role of two cognitive well-being factors (i.e., hope and life satisfaction) in the relation between perceived family support and goal-directed behaviors (i.e., engagement in meaningful instrumental activity). We employed a longitudinal mediation design, using three waves of data across 3 years from a large sample of adolescents (Mage = 14.6 years, SD = 2.06). We tested the model in the full sample first and then in two racial groups via multi-group comparison. In the full sample, we found that hope fully mediated the relation between perceived family support and engagement in meaningful instrumental activity. The mediation effect of life satisfaction was non-significant. Multi-group analysis revealed that for European American adolescents, the total effect of perceived family support on goal-directed behaviors was non-significant, but hope fully mediated the relation between family support and engagement in meaningful instrumental activity. For African American adolescents, the total effect of perceived family support on goal-directed behaviors was significant, and hope fully mediated the association between family support and meaningful instrumental activity. These findings suggest that perceived family support exerts a stronger effect on positive behaviors in African American adolescents compared to European American adolescents, but hope functioned as the “engine” in the proposed model, transferring energy from perceived family support to goal-directed behaviors in adolescents, regardless of race. Future directions and implications are discussed.

Keywords

Family support Hope Life satisfaction Goal-directed behavior Adolescents 

Notes

Supplementary material

10902_2019_117_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 16 kb)

References

  1. Archer, C. M., Jiang, X., Thurston, I. B., & Floyd, R. G. (2019). The differential effects of perceived social support on adolescent hope: Testing the moderating effects of age and gender. Child Indicators Research.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-019-9628-x.Google Scholar
  2. Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2005, November). Multivariate statistical modeling with survey data. In Proceedings of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology (FCSM) research conference (pp. 14–16).Google Scholar
  3. Barnum, D. D., Snyder, C., Rapoff, M. A., Mani, M. M., & Thompson, R. (1998). Hope and social support in psychological adjustment of children who have survived burn injuries and their matched controls. Children’s Health Care, 27(1), 15–30.Google Scholar
  4. Baumrind, D. (1972). An exploratory study of socialization effects on Black children: Some Black-White comparisons. Child Development, 43, 261–267.Google Scholar
  5. Brosseau-Liard, P. E., & Savalei, V. (2014). Adjusting incremental fit indices for nonnormality. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 49(5), 460–470.Google Scholar
  6. Brosseau-Liard, P. E., Savalei, V., & Li, L. (2012). An investigation of the sample performance of two nonnormality corrections for RMSEA. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 47(6), 904–930.Google Scholar
  7. Chua, L. W., Milfont, T. L., & Jose, P. E. (2015). Coping skills help explain how future-oriented adolescents accrue greater well-being over time. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(11), 2028–2041.Google Scholar
  8. Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P. C., & Davies, F. (2007). The impact of hope, self-esteem, and attributional style on adolescents’ school grades and emotional well-being: A longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(6), 1161–1178.Google Scholar
  9. Ciarrochi, J., Parker, P., Kashdan, T. B., Heaven, P. C., & Barkus, E. (2015). Hope and emotional well-being: A six-year study to distinguish antecedents, correlates, and consequences. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(6), 520–532.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Colarossi, L. G., & Eccles, J. S. (2003). Differential effects of support providers on adolescents’ mental health. Social Work Research, 27, 19–30.Google Scholar
  13. Cowen, E. L. (1994). The enhancement of psychological wellness: Challenges and opportunities. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22(2), 149–179.Google Scholar
  14. Danielsen, A. G., Samdal, O., Hetland, J., & Wold, B. (2009). School-related social support and students’ perceived life satisfaction. The Journal of Educational Research, 102(4), 303–320.Google Scholar
  15. Darling, N. (2005). Participation in extracurricular activities and adolescent adjustment: Cross-sectional and longitudinal findings. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(5), 493–505.Google Scholar
  16. Day, R. D., & Padilla-Walker, L. M. (2009). Mother and father connectedness and involvement during early adolescence. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(6), 900.Google Scholar
  17. Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1996). Physical discipline among African American and European American mothers: Links to children’s externalizing behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 32, 1065–1072.Google Scholar
  18. Dew, T., & Huebner, E. S. (1994). Adolescents’ perceived quality of life: An exploratory investigation. Journal of School Psychology, 32(2), 185–199.Google Scholar
  19. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276–302.Google Scholar
  20. Edwards, L. M., Ong, A. D., & Lopez, S. J. (2007). Hope measurement in Mexican American youth. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 29(2), 225–241.Google Scholar
  21. Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  22. Epstein, J. L., & McPartland, J. M. (1976). The concept and measurement of the quality of school life. American Educational Research Journal, 13(1), 15–30.Google Scholar
  23. Evans, D. R. (1994). Enhancing quality of life in the population at large. Journal of Adolescent Health, 33, 47–88.Google Scholar
  24. Fairchild, A. J., MacKinnon, D. P., Taborga, M. P., & Taylor, A. B. (2009). R 2 effect-size measures for mediation analysis. Behavior Research Methods, 41(2), 486–498.Google Scholar
  25. Farmer, T. W., & Farmer, E. (1996). Social relationships of students with exceptionalities in mainstream classrooms: Social networks and homophily. Exceptional Children, 62(5), 431–450.Google Scholar
  26. Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 300–319.Google Scholar
  27. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218–226.Google Scholar
  28. García, F. (2015). Parenting: Cultural influences and impact on childhood health and well-being. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  29. García, F., & Gracía, E. (2009). Is always authoritative the optimum parenting style? Evidence from Spanish families. Adolescence, 44(173), 101–131.Google Scholar
  30. Gilman, R. (2001). The relationship between life satisfaction, social interest, and frequency of extracurricular activities among adolescent students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(6), 749–767.Google Scholar
  31. Gilman, R., Dooley, J., & Florell, D. (2006). Relative levels of hope and their relationship with academic and psychological indicators among adolescents. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25(2), 166–178.Google Scholar
  32. Gilman, R., Meyers, J., & Perez, L. (2004). Structured extracurricular activities among adolescents: Findings and implications for school psychologists. Psychology in the Schools, 41(1), 31–41.Google Scholar
  33. Gottfried, A. E., Fleming, J. S., & Gottfried, A. W. (2001). Continuity of academic intrinsic motivation from childhood through late adolescence: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 3.Google Scholar
  34. Halama, P., & Dedová, M. (2007). Meaning in life and hope as predictors of positive mental health: Do they explain residual variance not predicted by personality traits? Studia Psychologica, 49(3), 191.Google Scholar
  35. Harrison, A. O., Wilson, M. N., Pine, C. J., Chan, S. Q., & Buriel, R. (1990). Family ecologies of ethnic minority children. Child Development, 61, 347–362.Google Scholar
  36. Helsen, M., Vollebergh, W., & Meeus, W. (2000). Social support from parents and friends and emotional problems in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 319–335.Google Scholar
  37. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3(4), 424–453.Google Scholar
  38. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.Google Scholar
  39. Huebner, E. S. (1991a). Initial development of the student’s life satisfaction scale. School Psychology International, 12(3), 231–240.Google Scholar
  40. Huebner, E. S. (1991b). Correlates of life satisfaction in children. School Psychology Quarterly, 6(2), 103–111.Google Scholar
  41. Huebner, E. S., Hills, K. J., Siddall, J., & Gilman, R. (2014). Life satisfaction and schooling. In M. Furlong, R. Gilman, & S. Huenber (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (2nd ed., pp. 192–208). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Jayawickreme, E., Forgeard, M. J., & Seligman, M. E. (2012). The engine of well-being. Review of General Psychology, 16(4), 327.Google Scholar
  43. Jiang, X., & Huebner, E. S. (2017). Students’ life satisfaction scale: Analysis of factorial invariance across gender. Journal of Well-Being Assessment, 1(1–3), 25–34.Google Scholar
  44. Jiang, X., Huebner, E. S., & Hills, K. J. (2013). Parent attachment and early adolescents’ life satisfaction: The mediating effect of hope. Psychology in the Schools, 50(4), 113–143.Google Scholar
  45. Jiang, X., Lyons, M. D., & Huebner, E. S. (2016). An examination of the reciprocal relations between life satisfaction and social problem solving in early adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 53, 141–151.Google Scholar
  46. Kenny, D. A., Kaniskan, B., & McCoach, D. B. (2015). The performance of RMSEA in models with small degrees of freedom. Sociological Methods & Research, 44(3), 486–507.Google Scholar
  47. Ling, Y., Huebner, E. S., Liu, J., Liu, W. L., Zhang, J., & Xiao, J. (2015). The origins of hope in adolescence: A test of a social–cognitive model. Personality and Individual Differences, 87, 307–311.Google Scholar
  48. Loeys, T., Moerkerke, B., & Vansteelandt, S. (2015). A cautionary note on the power of the test for the indirect effect in mediation analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1549.Google Scholar
  49. Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131(6), 803–855.Google Scholar
  50. Ma, C., & Huebner, E. S. (2008). Attachment relationships and adolescents’ life satisfaction: Some relationships matter more to girls than boys. Psychology in the Schools, 45(2), 177–190.Google Scholar
  51. Maccoby, E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In E. Heatherington (Ed.), Mussen manual of child psychology (4th ed., Vol. 4, pp. 1–102). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  52. MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., Yoon, M., & Ryu, E. (2007). Evaluation of the proportion mediated effect size measure of mediation. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  53. MacKinnon, D. P., Krull, J. L., & Lockwood, C. M. (2000). Equivalence of the mediation, confounding and suppression effect. Prevention Science, 1(4), 173–181.Google Scholar
  54. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7(1), 83–104.Google Scholar
  55. Masten, A. S., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research on successful children. American Psychologist, 53(2), 205.Google Scholar
  56. Maton, K. I. (1990). Meaningful involvement in instrumental activity and well-being: Studies of older adolescents and at risk urban teen-agers. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18(2), 297–320.Google Scholar
  57. Maydeu-Olivares, A. (2017). Maximum likelihood estimation of structural equation models for continuous data: Standard errors and goodness of fit. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 24(3), 383–394.Google Scholar
  58. McNeal, R. B., Jr. (1998). High school extracurricular activities: Closed structures and stratifying patterns of participation. The Journal of Educational Research, 91(3), 183–191.Google Scholar
  59. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus user’s guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  60. Ng, Z. J., Huebner, S. E., & Hills, K. J. (2015). Life satisfaction and academic performance in early adolescents: Evidence for reciprocal association. Journal of School Psychology, 53(6), 479–491.Google Scholar
  61. Nobles, W. W. (1988). African-American family life: An instrument of culture. In H. P. McAdoo (Ed.), Black families (2nd ed., pp. 44–53). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  62. Nussbaum, M. C. (2011). Creating capabilities: The human development approach. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Otis, K. L., Huebner, E. S., & Hills, K. J. (2016). Origins of early adolescents’ hope: Personality, parental attachment, and stressful life events. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 31(2), 102–121.Google Scholar
  64. Padilla-Walker, L. M., Hardy, S. A., & Christensen, K. J. (2011). Adolescent hope as a mediator between parent-child connectedness and adolescent outcomes. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 31(6), 853–879.Google Scholar
  65. Pagano, M. E., Hirsch, B. J., Deutsch, N. L., & McAdams, D. P. (2003). The transmission of values to school-age and young adult offspring: Race and gender differences in parenting. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 14(3–4), 13–36.Google Scholar
  66. Pallini, S., Milioni, M., Laghi, F., & Vecchio, G. M. (2016). The ant and the grasshopper: Adolescents’ time perspective, satisfaction with life and the mediating role of hope. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19(2), 351–364.Google Scholar
  67. Pinquart, M., & Kauser, R. (2018). Do the associations of parenting styles with behavior problems and academic achievement vary by culture? Results from a meta-analysis. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24, 75–100.Google Scholar
  68. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891.Google Scholar
  69. Rubin, K. H., Dwyer, K. M., Booth-LaForce, C. L., Kim, A. H., Burgess, K. B., & Rose-Krasnor, L. (2004). Attachment, friendship, and psychosocial functioning in early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 24(4), 326–356.Google Scholar
  70. Rucker, D. D., Preacher, K. J., Tormala, Z. L., & Petty, R. E. (2011). Mediation analysis in social psychology: Current practices and new recommendations. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5(6), 359–371.Google Scholar
  71. Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2010). Relationship between multiple sources of perceived social support and psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence: Comparisons across gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(1), 47.Google Scholar
  72. Saha, R., Huebner, E. S., Suldo, S. M., & Valois, R. F. (2010). A longitudinal study of adolescent life satisfaction and parenting. Child Indicators Research, 3(2), 149–165.Google Scholar
  73. Savalei, V. (2010). Small sample statistics for incomplete nonnormal data: Extensions of complete data formulae and a Monte Carlo comparison. Structural Equation Modeling, 17(2), 241–264.Google Scholar
  74. Seligman, M. E., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–14.Google Scholar
  75. Sen, A. K. (1992). Inequality reexamined. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  76. Sheldon, K. M., & King, L. (2001). Why positive psychology is necessary. American Psychologist, 56(3), 216.Google Scholar
  77. Shi, D., Lee, T., & Maydeu-Olivares, A. (2018a). Understanding the model size effect on SEM fit indices. Educational and Psychological Measurement.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00273171.2018.1476221.Google Scholar
  78. Shi, D., Maydeu-Olivares, A., & Distefano, C. (2018b). The relationship between the standardized root mean square residual and model misspecification in factor analysis models. Multivariate Behavioral Research.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164418783530.Google Scholar
  79. Shorey, H. S., Snyder, C. R., Yang, X., & Lewin, M. R. (2003). The role of hope as a mediator in recollected parenting, adult attachment, and mental health. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 22(6), 685–715.Google Scholar
  80. Siddall, J., Huebner, E. S., & Jiang, X. (2013). A prospective study of differential sources of school-related social support and adolescent global life satisfaction. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 83(1), 107–114.Google Scholar
  81. Simmons, R. G., & Blyth, D. A. (1987). Moving into adolescence: The impact of pubertal change and school context. Hawthorne, NJ: Aldine.Google Scholar
  82. Snyder, C. R., Cheavens, J., & Sympson, S. C. (1997). Hope: An individual motive for social commerce. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1, 107–118.Google Scholar
  83. Snyder, C. R., Irving, L. M., & Anderson, J. R. (1991). Hope and health. Handbook of social and clinical psychology: The Health Perspective, 162, 285–305.Google Scholar
  84. Snyder, C. R., Rand, K. L., & Sigmon, D. R. (2002). Hope theory: A member of the positive psychology family. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 257–276). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Song, J., Bong, M., Lee, K., & Kim, S. I. (2015). Longitudinal investigation into the role of perceived social support in adolescents’ academic motivation and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(3), 821.Google Scholar
  86. Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2004a). Does life satisfaction moderate the effects of stressful life events on psychopathological behavior during adolescence? School Psychology Quarterly, 19(2), 93–105.Google Scholar
  87. Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2004b). The role of life satisfaction in the relationship between authoritative parenting dimensions and adolescent problem behavior. Social Indicators Research, 66(1–2), 165–195.Google Scholar
  88. Suldo, S., Thalji, A., & Ferron, J. (2011). Longitudinal academic outcomes predicted by early adolescents’ subjective well-being, psychopathology, and mental health status yielded from a dual factor model. Journal of Positive Psychology, 6, 17–30.Google Scholar
  89. Taborga M. P. (2000) Effect size in mediation models. Arizona State University, Tempe, Unpublished master’s thesis.Google Scholar
  90. Valle, M. F., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. M. (2004). Further evaluation of the Children's Hope Scale. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 22(4), 320–337.Google Scholar
  91. Valle, M. F., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. M. (2006). An analysis of hope as a psychological strength. Journal of School Psychology, 44(5), 393–406.Google Scholar
  92. Varela, R. E., Vernberg, E. M., Sanchez-Sosa, J. J., Riveros, A., Mitchell, M., & Mashunkashey, J. (2004). Parenting style of Mexican, Mexican American, and Caucasian-non-Hispanic families: Social context and cultural influences. Journal of Family Psychology, 18(4), 651.Google Scholar
  93. West, S. G., Taylor, A. B., & Wu, W. (2012). Model fit and model selection in structural equation modeling. In Handbook of structural equation modeling (pp. 209–231).Google Scholar
  94. Wills, T. A., & Cleary, S. D. (1996). How are social support effects mediated? A test with parental support and adolescent substance use. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(5), 937–952.Google Scholar
  95. Wills, T. A., Resko, J. A., Ainette, M. G., & Mendoza, D. (2004). Smoking onset in adolescence: A person-centered analysis with time-varying predictors. Health Psychology, 23(2), 158–167.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MemphisMemphisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychology, Barnwell CollegeUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations