Advertisement

Savoring and Dampening with Passion: How Passionate People Respond when Good Things Happen

  • Benjamin J. I. SchellenbergEmail author
  • Patrick Gaudreau
Research Paper

Abstract

How do people react when they experience a positive event while pursuing a passionate activity? In this research, we conducted three studies to test if the extent to which people respond to positive events by engaging in savoring (i.e., attempting to maintain or enhance positive emotions) and dampening (i.e., attempting to down-regulated or stifle positive emotions) is predicted by levels of harmonious and obsessive passion for an activity. Study 1 (n = 321) and Study 2 (n = 547) both showed that harmonious passion positively predicted savoring, whereas obsessive passion predicted less savoring and greater dampening. Moreover, in Study 2, savoring mediated the relationships between both passion varieties and well-being outcomes. In Study 3, we extended these findings and tested if these relationships depended on whether a positive event was a result of an in-progress or completed achievement. Soccer fans (n = 394) imagined how they would react if their favorite team won either the semi-final (in-progress condition) or final (completed condition) of the ongoing UEFA champions league. In both scenarios, harmonious passion was a stronger predictor of savoring than obsessive passion. Obsessive passion also showed strong relationships with dampening in both scenarios, although this relationship was attenuated in the completed condition. Overall, these results reveal that passion varieties matter for predicting how people manage their good feelings following positive events, a finding that has implications for our understanding of the pathways that link passion varieties with well-being outcomes.

Keywords

Dampening Dualistic model of passion Emotion regulation Harmonious passion Obsessive passion Savoring 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada under Grant Number 756-2016-0132.

References

  1. Bryant, F. B. (2003). Savoring beliefs inventory (SBI): A scale for measuring beliefs about savouring. Journal of Mental Health, 12, 175–196.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0963823031000103489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bryant, F. B., Chadwick, E. D., & Kluwe, K. (2011). Understanding the processes that regulate positive emotional experience: Unsolved problems and future directions for theory and research on savoring. International Journal of Wellbeing, 1, 107–126.  https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v1i1.18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bryant, F. B., & Veroff, J. (2007). Savoring: A new model of positive experience. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  4. Busse, C., Kach, A. P., & Wagner, S. M. (2017). Boundary conditions: What they are, how to explore them, why we need them, and when to consider them. Organizational Research Methods, 20, 574–609.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428116641191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carpentier, J., Mageau, G. A., & Vallerand, R. J. (2012). Ruminations and flow: Why do people with a more harmonious passion experience higher well-being? Journal of Happiness Studies, 13, 501–518.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-011-9276-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Curran, T., Hill, A. P., Appleton, P. R., Vallerand, R. J., & Standage, M. (2015). The psychology of passion: A meta-analytical review of a decade of research on intrapersonal outcomes. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 631–655.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-015-9503-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Diedenhofen, B., & Musch, J. (2015). Concor: A comprehensive solution for the statistical comparison of correlations. PLoS ONE, 10, e0121945.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gentzler, A. L., Palmer, C. A., & Ramsey, M. A. (2016). Savoring with intent: Investigating types of and motives for responses to positive events. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17, 937–958.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-015-9625-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Greenaway, K. H., & Kalokerinos, E. K. (2017). Suppress for success? Exploring the contexts in which expressing positive emotion can have social costs. European Review of Social Psychology, 28, 134–174.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10463283.2017.1331874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gross, J. J. (1999). Emotion regulation: Past, present, and future. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 551–573.  https://doi.org/10.1080/026999399379186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  13. Huebner, S. (2001). Manual for the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale. Columbia: University of South Carolina.Google Scholar
  14. Hurley, D. B., & Kwon, P. (2013). Savoring helps most when you have little: Interaction between savoring the moment and uplifts on positive affect and satisfaction with life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 1261–1271.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-012-9377-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hutcheson, G., & Sofroniou, N. (1999). The multivariate social scientist. London: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jose, P. E., Lim, B. T., & Bryant, F. B. (2012). Does savoring increase happiness? A daily diary study. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7, 176–187.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2012.671345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lafrenière, M. K., St-Louis, A. C., Vallerand, R. J., & Donahue, E. G. (2012). On the relation between performance and life satisfaction: The moderating role of passion. Self and Identity, 11, 516–530.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2011.616000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  19. Mageau, G. A., Carpentier, J., & Vallerand, R. J. (2011). The role of self-esteem contingencies in the distinction between obsessive and harmonious passion. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 720–729.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Marsh, H. W., Vallerand, R. J., Lafrenière, M. K., Parker, P., Morin, A. J. S., Carbonneau, N., et al. (2013). Passion: Does one scale fit all? Construct validity of two-factor passion scale and psychometric invariance over different activities and languages. Psychological Assessment, 25, 796–809.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Miyamoto, Y., & Ma, X. (2011). Dampening or savoring positive emotions: A dialectical cultural script guides emotion regulation. Emotion, 11, 1346–1357.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Neff, K. D. (2009). Self-compassion. In M. R. Leary & R. H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 561–573). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  23. Peer, E., Brandimarte, L., Samat, S., & Acquisti, A. (2017). Beyond the Turk: Alternative platforms for crowdsourcing behavioral research. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 70, 153–163.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2017.01.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Philippe, F. L., Vallerand, R. J., Andrianarisoa, J., & Brunel, P. (2009). Passion in referees: Examining their affective and cognitive experiences in sport situations. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31, 77–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Quoidbach, J., Berry, E. V., Hansenne, M., & Mikolajczak, M. (2010). Positive emotional regulation and well-being: Comparing the impact of eight savoring and dampening strategies. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 368–373.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ritchie, T. D., & Bryant, F. B. (2012). Positive state mindfulness: A multidimensional model of mindfulness in relation to positive experience. International Journal of Wellbeing, 2, 150–181.  https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v2.i3.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schall, M., Goetz, T., Martiny, S. E., & Hall, N. C. (2017). It ain’t over ‘til it’s over: The effect of task completion on the savoring of success. Motivation and Emotion, 41, 38–50.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-016-9591-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schellenberg, B. J. I., & Bailis, D. S. (2016). The two roads of passionate goal pursuit: Links with appraisal, coping, and academic achievement. Anxiety Stress and Coping, 29, 287–304.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2015.1036047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schellenberg, B. J. I., Bailis, D. S., & Mosewich, A. D. (2016). You have passion, but do you have self-compassion? Harmonious passion, obsessive passion, and responses to passion-related failure. Personality and Individual Differences, 99, 278–285.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.05.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schellenberg, B. J. I., Gaudreau, P., & Crocker, P. R. E. (2013). Passion and coping: Relationships with changes in burnout and goal attainment in collegiate volleyball players. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35, 270–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shoemann, A. M., Boulton, A. J., & Short, S. D. (2017). Determining power and sample size for simple and complex mediation models. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8, 379–386.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550617715068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. St-Louis, A. C., Verner-Filion, J., Bergeron, C. M., & Vallerand, R. J. (2018). Passion and mindfulness: Accessing adaptive self-processes. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13, 155–164.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2016.1245771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tamir, M. (2009). Why do people want to feel and why? Pleasure and utility in emotion regulation. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 101–105.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01617.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vallerand, R. J. (2015). The psychology of passion: A dualistic model. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vallerand, R. J. (2016). On the synergy between hedonia and eudaimonia: The role of passion. In J. Vittersø (Ed.), Handbook of eudaimonic well-being (pp. 191–204). Cham: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42445-3_13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vallerand, R. J., Blanchard, C. M., Mageau, G. A., Koestner, R., Ratelle, C., Léonard, M., et al. (2003). Les passions de l’ame: On obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 756–767.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.4.756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vallerand, R. J., Ntoumanis, N., Philippe, F. L., Lavigne, G. L., Carbonneau, N., Bonneville, A., et al. (2008). On passion and sports fans: A look at football. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26, 1279–1293.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410802123185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vallerand, R. J., Paquet, Y., Philippe, F. L., & Charest, J. (2010). On the role of passion for work in burnout: A process model. Journal of Personality, 78, 289–312.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00616.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vallerand, R. J., & St-Louis, A. C. (in press). The role of passion in integrated temporal positivity: Implications for optimal functioning. In F. Grouzet (Ed.), The handbook of psychology of time. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Verner-Filion, J., Lafrenière, M. A. K., & Vallerand, R. J. (2012). On the accuracy of affective forecasting: The moderating role of passion. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 849–854.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.01.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Verner-Filion, J., Schellenberg, B. J. I., Rapaport, M., Bélanger, J. J., & Vallerand, R. J. (2018). “The thrill of victory… and the agony of defeat”: Passion and emotional reactions to success and failure among recreational golfers. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 40, 280–283.  https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2017-0316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Williams, L. J., & O’Boyle, E. H. (2008). Measurement models for linking latent variables and indicators: A review of human resource management research using parcels. Human Resource Management Review, 18, 233–242.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2008.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wilson, C. A., & Saklofske, D. H. (2018). The relationship between trait emotional intelligence, resiliency, and mental health in older adults: the mediating role of savouring. Aging & Mental Health, 22, 646–654.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2017.1292207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wood, J. V., Heimpel, S. A., & Michela, J. L. (2003). Savoring versus dampening: Self-esteem differences in regulating positive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 566–580.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.3.566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation ManagementUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.School of PsychologyUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations