Advertisement

Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 1141–1162 | Cite as

A Positive Psychology Intervention Program in a Culturally-Diverse University: Boosting Happiness and Reducing Fear

  • L. LambertEmail author
  • H.-A. Passmore
  • M. Joshanloo
Research Paper

Abstract

While developing excellence in knowledge and skills, academic institutions have often overlooked their obligation to instill wellbeing. To address this, we introduced a 14-week positive psychology intervention (PPI) program (Happiness 101) to university students from 39 different nations studying in the United Arab Emirates (N = 159). Students were exposed to 18 different PPIs. Pre, post, and 3-month-post measures were taken assessing hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, and beliefs regarding the fear and fragility of happiness. At the end of the semester, relative to a control group (N = 108), participants exposed to the Happiness 101 program reported higher levels of both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, and lower levels of fear of happiness and the belief that happiness is fragile. Boosts in life satisfaction and net-positive affect, and reduction of fear of happiness and the belief that happiness is fragile were maintained in the Happiness 101 group 3 months post-intervention.

Keywords

Positive psychology Positive psychology interventions Culture Fear of happiness Fragility of happiness Wellbeing United Arab Emirates 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Aaker, J., Rudd, M., & Mogilner, C. (2011). If money does not make you happy, consider time. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 21(2), 126–130.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2011.01.004.Google Scholar
  2. Abu-Raiya, H., Pargament, K. I., & Krause, N. (2016). Religion as problem, religion as solution: Religious buffers of the links between religious/spiritual struggles and well-being/mental health. Quality of Life Research: An International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care & Rehabilitation, 25(5), 1265–1274.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-015-1163-8.Google Scholar
  3. Agbo, A. A., & Ngwu, C. N. (2017). Aversion to happiness and the experience of happiness: The moderating roles of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 111, 227–231.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.02.010.Google Scholar
  4. Aknin, L. B., Barrington-Leigh, C. P., Dunn, E. W., Helliwell, J. F., Biswas-Diener, R., Kemeza, I., et al. (2013). Prosocial spending and well-being: Cross-cultural evidence for a psychological universal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(4), 635–652.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031578.Google Scholar
  5. Aknin, L. B., & Dunn, E. W. (2013). Spending money on others leads to higher happiness than spending on yourself. In J. F. Froh & A. C. Parks (Eds.), Activities for teaching positive psychology: A guide for instructors (pp. 93–98). Washington, DC: APA.  https://doi.org/10.1037/14042-015.Google Scholar
  6. Arnett, J. J. (2008). The neglected 95%: Why American psychology needs to become less American. American Psychologist, 63(7), 602–614.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.63.7.602.Google Scholar
  7. Bermant, G., Talwar, C., & Rozin, P. (2011). To celebrate positive psychology and extend its horizons. In K. M. Sheldon, T. B. Kashdan, & M. F. Steger (Eds.), Designing positive psychology: Taking stock and moving forward (pp. 430–438). Oxford: Oxford University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373585.003.0029.Google Scholar
  8. Bernard, M., & Walton, K. (2011). The effect of You Can Do It! Education in six schools on student perceptions of wellbeing, teaching, learning and relationships. Journal of Student Wellbeing, 5, 22–37.  https://doi.org/10.21913/jsw.v5i1.679.Google Scholar
  9. Boehm, J. K., & Kubzansky, L. D. (2012). The heart’s content: The association between positive psychological well-being and cardiovascular health. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 655–691.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027448.Google Scholar
  10. Boehm, J. K., Lyubomirsky, S., & Sheldon, K. M. (2011). A longitudinal experimental study comparing the effectiveness of happiness-enhancing strategies in Anglo Americans and Asian Americans. Cognition and Emotion, 25, 1263–1272.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2010.541227.Google Scholar
  11. Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Westerhof, G. J., Riper, H., Smit, F., & Bohlmeijer, E. (2013). Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Public Health, 13, 119.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-119.Google Scholar
  12. Brannan, D., Biswas-Diener, R., Mohr, C., Mortazavi, S., & Stein, N. (2013). Friends and family: A cross-cultural investigation of social support and subjective well-being. Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(1), 65–75.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2012.743573.Google Scholar
  13. Broderick, P., & Metz, S. (2009). Learning to BREATHE: A pilot trial of a mindfulness curriculum for adolescents. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 2, 35–46.  https://doi.org/10.1002/yd.20042/pdf.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, K., Ryan, R., & Creswell, J. (2007). Addressing fundamental questions about mindfulness. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 272–281.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10478400701703344.Google Scholar
  15. Brunwasser, S. M., Gillham, J. E., & Kim, E. S. (2009). A meta-analytic review of the Penn Resiliency Program’s effect on depressive symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(6), 1042–1054.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017671.Google Scholar
  16. Brunzell, T., Stokes, H., & Waters, L. (2016). Trauma informed positive education: Using positive psychology to repair and strengthen vulnerable students. Contemporary School Psychology, 20, 63–83.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40688-015-0070-x.Google Scholar
  17. Bryant, F., & Veroff, J. (2006). Savoring: A new model of positive experience. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  18. Burton, C., & King, L. (2004). The health benefits of writing about intensely positive experiences. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 150–163.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-6566(03)00058-8.Google Scholar
  19. Burton, C., & King, L. (2009). The health benefits of writing about positive experiences: The role of broadened cognition. Psychology & Health, 24(8), 867–879.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08870440801989946.Google Scholar
  20. Carver, C., Scheier, M., & Segerstrom, S. (2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 879–889.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.01.006.Google Scholar
  21. Christopher, J., & Hickinbottom, S. (2008). Positive psychology, ethnocentrism, and the disguised ideology of individualism. Theory & Psychology, 18(5), 563–589.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354308093396.Google Scholar
  22. Creed, P. A., Patton, W., & Bartrum, D. (2002). Multidimensional properties of the LOT-R: Effects of optimism and pessimism on career and wellbeing related variables in adolescents. Journal of Career Assessment, 10, 42–61.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072702010001003.Google Scholar
  23. Creswell, J. D., Welch, W. T., Taylor, S. E., Sherman, D. K., Gruenewald, T. L., & Mann, T. (2005). Affirmation of personal values buffers neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses. Psychological Science, 16, 846–851.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01624.x.Google Scholar
  24. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  25. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13.Google Scholar
  26. Diener, E., Fujita, F., Tay, L., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2012). Purpose, mood, and pleasure in prediction satisfaction judgements. Social Indicators Research, 105, 333–341.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-011-9787-8.Google Scholar
  27. Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Ryan, K. (2013). Universal and cultural differences in the causes and structure of “happiness”—A multilevel review. In C. Keyes (Ed.), Mental well-being: International contributions to the study of positive mental health (pp. 153–176). Dordrecht: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5195-8_8.Google Scholar
  28. Diener, E., Tay, L., & Myers, D. G. (2011). The religion paradox: If religion makes people happy, why are so many dropping out? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 1278–1290.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024402.Google Scholar
  29. Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D., Oishi, S., et al. (2009). New measures of well-being: Flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research, 39, 247–266.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2354-4_12.Google Scholar
  30. Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D., Oishi, S., et al. (2010). New well-being measures: Short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research, 97, 143–156.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-009-9493-y.Google Scholar
  31. Dillard, A. J., Schiavone, A., & Brown, S. L. (2008). Helping behavior and positive emotions: Implications for health and well-being. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), Positive psychology: Exploring the best in people, Vol. 2: Capitalizing on emotions experiences. Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.Google Scholar
  32. Duckworth, A., Steen, T., & Seligman, M. (2005). Positive psychology in clinical practice. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 629–651.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.144154.Google Scholar
  33. Dunn, E. W., Aknin, L. B., & Norton, M. I. (2008). Spending money on others promotes happiness. Science, 319(5870), 1687–1688.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1150952.Google Scholar
  34. Dunn, E. W., Gilbert, D. T., & Wilson, T. D. (2011). If money doesn’t make you happy then you probably aren’t spending it right. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 21(2), 115–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2011.02.002.Google Scholar
  35. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405–432.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x.Google Scholar
  36. Erdogan, B., Bauer, T. N., Truxillo, D. M., & Mansfield, L. R. (2012). Whistle while you work: A review of life satisfaction. Journal of Management, 38, 1038–1083.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311429379.Google Scholar
  37. Ferguson, Y. L., & Kasser, T. (2013). A teaching tool for disengaging from materialism: The commercial media fast. In J. F. Froh & A. C. Parks (Eds.), Activities for teaching positive psychology: A guide for instructors (pp. 143–148). Washington, DC: APA.  https://doi.org/10.1037/14042-023.Google Scholar
  38. Fischer, P., Sauer, A., Vogrincic, C., & Weisweiler, S. (2010). The ancestor effect: Thinking about our genetic origin enhances intellectual performance. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41(1), 11–16.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.778.Google Scholar
  39. Fredrickson, B. (2006). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), A life worth living: Contributions to positive psychology (pp. 85–103). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Froh, J., Kashdan, T., Ozimkowski, K., & Miller, N. (2009). Who benefits the most from a gratitude intervention in children and adolescents? Examining positive affect as a moderator. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 408–422.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760902992464.Google Scholar
  41. Froh, J., Sefick, W., & Emmons, R. A. (2008). Counting blessings in early adolescents: An experimental study of gratitude and subjective well-being. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 213–233.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2007.03.005.Google Scholar
  42. Gable, S. L. (2013). Capitalizing on positive events. In J. F. Froh & A. C. Parks (Eds.), Activities for teaching positive psychology: A guide for instructors (pp. 71–76). Washington, DC: APA.  https://doi.org/10.1037/14042-012.Google Scholar
  43. Gable, S., & Reis, H. (2010). Good news! Capitalizing on positive events in an interpersonal context. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 195–257.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0065-2601(10)42004-3.Google Scholar
  44. Gander, F., Proyer, R. T., & Ruch, W. (2016). Positive psychology interventions addressing pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment increase well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms: A randomized, placebo-controlled online study. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, Article 686.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00686.
  45. Giacaman, R., Rabaia, Y., Nguyen-Gillham, V., Batniji, R., Punamäki, R. L., & Summerfield, D. (2010). Mental health, social distress and political oppression: The case of the occupied Palestinian territory. Global Public Health, 6(5), 547–559.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2010.528443.Google Scholar
  46. Goudie, R., Mukherjee, S., De Neve, J.-E., Oswald, A. J., & Wu, S. (2012). Happiness as a driver of risk-avoiding behavior. The Centre for Economic Performance, Discussion Paper No. 1126. Retrieved March 17, 2014, from http://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp1126.pdf.
  47. Grant, N., Wardle, J., & Steptoe, A. (2009). The relationship between life satisfaction and health behaviour: A cross-cultural analysis of young adults. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 259–268.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-009-9032-x.Google Scholar
  48. Green, S., Oades, L., & Robinson, P. (2011). Positive education: Creating flourishing students, staff and schools. InPysch, 16–17, April.Google Scholar
  49. Gulamhussein, Q., & Eaton, N. R. (2015). Hijab, religiosity, and psychological wellbeing of Muslim women in the United States. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 9(2), 25–40.  https://doi.org/10.3998/jmmh.10381607.0009.202.Google Scholar
  50. Hardy, J., Hall, C., & Alexander, M. (2001). Exploring self-talk and affective states in sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 19, 469–475.  https://doi.org/10.1080/026404101750238926.Google Scholar
  51. Helgeson, V. S., Reynolds, K. A., & Tomich, P. L. (2006). A meta-analytic review of benefit finding and growth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 797–816.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.74.5.797.Google Scholar
  52. Hone, L. C., Jarden, A., & Schofield, G. M. (2015). An evaluation of positive psychology intervention effectiveness trials using the re-aim framework: A practice-friendly review. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(4), 303–322.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2014.965267.Google Scholar
  53. Huang, H., & Humphreys, B. R. (2012). Sports participation and happiness: Evidence from US microdata. Journal of Economic Psychology, 33(4), 776–793.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2012.02.007.Google Scholar
  54. Huffman, J. C., DuBois, C. M., Healy, B. C., Boehm, J. K., Kashdan, T. B., Celano, C. M., et al. (2014). Feasibility and utility of positive psychology exercises for suicidal inpatients. General Hospital Psychiatry, 36(1), 88–94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.10.006.Google Scholar
  55. Huppert, F., & Johnson, D. (2010). A controlled trial of mindfulness training in schools: The importance of practice for an impact on well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 264–274.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439761003794148.Google Scholar
  56. Huta, V., & Waterman, J. (2014). Eudaimonia and its Distinction from hedonia: Developing a classification and terminology for understanding conceptual and operational definitions. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15, 1425–1456.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9485-0.Google Scholar
  57. Johnson, K. J., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2005). “We all look the same to me” Positive emotions eliminate the own-race bias in face recognition. Psychological Science, 16, 875–881.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01631.x.Google Scholar
  58. Joshanloo, M. (2013a). The influence of fear of happiness beliefs on responses to the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(5), 647–651.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.11.011.Google Scholar
  59. Joshanloo, M. (2013b). A comparison of Western and Islamic conceptions of happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(6), 1857–1874.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-012-9406-7.Google Scholar
  60. Joshanloo, M. (2016). Self-esteem in Iran: Views from antiquity to modern times. Middle East Journal of Positive Psychology, 2(1), 22–41. Retrieved from https://middleeastjournalofpositivepsychology.org/index.php/mejpp/article/view/45.
  61. Joshanloo, M. (2017). Mediators of the relationship between externality of happiness and subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 119, 147–151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.07.017.Google Scholar
  62. Joshanloo, M., Lepshokova, Z. K., Panyusheva, T., Natalia, A., Poon, W. C., Yeung, V. W., et al. (2014). Cross-cultural validation of the fear of happiness scale across 14 national groups. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(2), 246–264.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022113505357.Google Scholar
  63. Joshanloo, M., Park, Y. O., & Park, S. H. (2017). Optimism as the moderator of the relationship between fragility of happiness beliefs and experienced happiness. Personality and Individual Differences, 106, 61–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.10.039.Google Scholar
  64. Joshanloo, M., & Weijers, D. (2013). Aversion to happiness across cultures: A review of where and why people are averse to happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(3), 717–735.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9489-9.Google Scholar
  65. Joshanloo, M., Weijers, D., Jiang, D.-Y., Han, G., Bae, J., Pang, J., et al. (2015). Fragility of happiness beliefs across 15 national groups. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16, 1185–1210.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-014-9553-0.Google Scholar
  66. Joshanloo, M., Wissing, M. P., Khumalo, I. P., & Lamers, S. M. A. (2013). Measurement invariance of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) across three cultural groups. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(7), 755–759.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.06.002.Google Scholar
  67. Judge, T. A., Piccolo, R. F., Podsakoff, N. P., Shaw, J. C., & Rich, B. L. (2010). The relationship between pay and job satisfaction: A meta-analysis of the literature. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77, 157–167.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.04.002.Google Scholar
  68. Kahler, C. W., Spillane, N. S., Day, A., Clerkin, E. M., Parks, A., Leventhal, A. M., et al. (2014). Positive psychotherapy for smoking cessation: Treatment development, feasibility, and preliminary results. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9, 19–29.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2013.826716.Google Scholar
  69. Kashdan, T. B., Biswas-Diener, R., & King, L. A. (2008). Reconsidering happiness: The costs of distinguishing between hedonics and eudaimonia. Journal of Positive Psychology, 3, 219–233.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760802303044.Google Scholar
  70. Kashdan, T. B., & Nezlek, J. B. (2012). Whether, when, and how is spirituality related to well-being? Moving beyond single occasion questionnaires to understanding daily process. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1526–1538.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212454549.Google Scholar
  71. Kern, M. L., Waters, L. E., Adler, A., & White, M. A. (2015). A multidimensional approach to measuring well-being in students: Application of the PERMA framework. Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(3), 262–271.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2014.93696.Google Scholar
  72. Keyes, C. L. M. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 207–222.Google Scholar
  73. Keyes, C. L. M. (2005). Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 539–548.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.73.3.539.Google Scholar
  74. Keyes, C. L. M. (2009). Atlanta: Brief description of the Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-SF). Retrieved from http://www.sociology.emory.edu/ckeyes/.
  75. Keyes, C. L. M., & Annas, J. (2009). Feeling good and functioning well: Distinctive concepts in ancient philosophy and contemporary science. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 197–201.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760902844228.Google Scholar
  76. Khumalo, I. P., Temane, Q. M., & Wissing, M. P. (2012). Socio-demographic variables, general psychological well-being and the Mental Health Continuum in an African context. Social Indicators Research, 105, 419–442.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-010-9777-2.Google Scholar
  77. Kok, B., Catalino, L., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2008). The broadening, building, buffering effects of positive emotions. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), Positive psychology: Exploring the best of people (Vol. 3, pp. 1–19). Westport, CT: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  78. Kurtz, J. L., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2013). Using mindful photography to increase positive emotion and appreciation. In J. F. Froh & A. C. Parks (Eds.), Activities for teaching positive psychology: A guide for instructors (pp. 133–136). Washington, DC: APA.  https://doi.org/10.1037/14042-021.Google Scholar
  79. Lambert, L. (2012). Happiness 101: A how-to guide in positive psychology for people who are depressed, languishing, or flourishing (The facilitator guide). Bloomington, IN: Xlibris Corporation.Google Scholar
  80. Lambert, L. (2016). A new year, a new you: 52 strategies for a happier life! CreateSpace Independent Publishing: Amazon Publishing. Retrieved from https://www.amazon.com/New-Year-You-Strategies-Happier/dp/1543062326.
  81. Lambert D’raven, L., Moliver, N., & Thompson, D. (2015). Happiness intervention decreases pain and depression and boosts happiness among primary care patients. Primary Health Care Research & Development, 16(2), 114–126.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s146342361300056x.Google Scholar
  82. Lambert D’raven, L., & Pasha-Zaidi, N. (2014a). Positive psychology interventions: A review for counselling practitioners. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy/Revue Canadienne de Counseling et de Psychothérapie, 48(4), 383–408. Retrieved from http://cjc-rcc.ucalgary.ca/cjc/index.php/rcc/article/view/2720.
  83. Lambert D’raven, L., & Pasha-Zaidi, N. (2014b). Happiness strategies among Arab university students in the United Arab Emirates. The Journal of Happiness and Well-Being, 2(1), 1–15. Retrieved from http://www.journalofhappiness.net/volume/volume-2-issue-1.
  84. Lambert, L., Pasha-Zaidi, N., Passmore, H.-A., & York Al-Karam, C. (2015). Developing an indigenous positive psychology in the United Arab Emirates. Middle East Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(1), 1–23. Retrieved from https://middleeastjournalofpositivepsychology.org/index.php/mejpp/article/view/24.
  85. Lambert, L., Passmore, H.-A., & Holder, M. D. (2015b). Foundational frameworks of positive psychology: Mapping well-being orientations. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 56, 311–321.Google Scholar
  86. Lamers, S. M. A., Glas, C. A. W., Westerhof, G. J., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2012). Longitudinal evaluation of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 28, 290–296.  https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000109.Google Scholar
  87. Larsen, R. J., & Eid, M. (2008). Ed Diener and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 1–16). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  88. Lount, J. R. B. (2010). The impact of positive mood on trust in interpersonal and intergroup interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 420–433.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017344.Google Scholar
  89. Lyubomirsky, S. (2011). Hedonic adaptation to positive and negative experiences. In S. Folkman (Ed.), Oxford handbook of stress, health, and coping (pp. 200–224). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Lyubomirsky, S., Dickerhoof, R., Boehm, J. K., & Sheldon, K. M. (2011). Becoming happier takes both a will and a proper way: An experimental longitudinal intervention to boost well-being. Emotion, 11, 391–402.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022575.Google Scholar
  91. Lyubomirsky, S., King, L. A., & Diener, E. (2005a). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131, 803–855.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.6.803.Google Scholar
  92. Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005b). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9(2), 111–131.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.9.2.111.Google Scholar
  93. Lyubomirsky, S., & Tkach, C. (2003). The consequences of dysphoric rumination. In C. Papageorgiou & A. Wells (Eds.), Rumination: nature, theory, and treatment of negative thinking in depression (pp. 21–41). Chichester: Wiley.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470713853.ch2.Google Scholar
  94. Magyar-Moe, J. L., Owens, R. L., & Conoley, C. W. (2015). Positive psychology interventions in counseling: What every counseling psychologist should know. The Counseling Psychologist, 43, 508–557.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000015573776.Google Scholar
  95. Mills, M. J., Fleck, C. R., & Kozikowski, A. (2013). Positive psychology at work: A conceptual review, state-of-practice assessment, and a look ahead. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(2), 153–164.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2013.776622.Google Scholar
  96. Neault, R. A. (2002). Thriving in the new millennium: Career management in the changing world of work. Canadian Journal of Career Development, 1(1), 11–21. Retrieved from http://cjcdonline.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Thriving-in-the-New-Millennium.pdf.
  97. Nelson, D. W. (2009). Feeling good and open-minded: The impact of positive affect on cross cultural empathic responding. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 53–63.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760802357859.Google Scholar
  98. Norrish, J. M., Williams, P., O’Connor, M., & Robinson, J. (2013). An applied framework for positive education. International Journal of Wellbeing, 3(2), 147–161.  https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v3i2.2.Google Scholar
  99. Oades, L. G., Robinson, P., Green, S., & Spence, G. B. (2011). Towards a positive university. Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(6), 432–439.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2011.634828.Google Scholar
  100. Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2008). Positive psychology and character strengths: Application to strengths-based school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 12, 85–92.  https://doi.org/10.5330/psc.n.2010-12.85.Google Scholar
  101. Parveen, S., Sandilya, G., & Shafiq, M. (2014). Religiosity and mental health among Muslim youth. Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing, 5(3), 316. Retrieved from https://www.myresearchjournals.com/index.php/IJHW/article/view/507.
  102. Passmore, H.-A., Howell, A. J., & Holder, M. J. (2017). Positioning implicit theories of well-being within a positivity framework. Journal of Happiness Studies.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-017-9934-2.Google Scholar
  103. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Psychological Assessment, 5, 164–172.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.5.2.164.Google Scholar
  104. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2008). The Satisfaction with Life Scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3, 137–152.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760701756946.Google Scholar
  105. Plante, T. G., Valleys, C. L., Sherman, A. C., & Wallson, K. A. (2002). The development of a Brief Version of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire. Pastoral Psychology, 50(5), 359–368.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1014413720710.Google Scholar
  106. Priller, E., & Schupp, J. (2011). Social and economic characteristics of financial and blood donors in Germany. DIW Economic Bulletin, 6, 23–30. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10419/57691.
  107. Rao, M. A., Donaldson, S. I., & Doiron, K. M. (2015). Positive psychology research in the Middle East and North Africa. Middle East Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(1), 60–76. Retrieved from https://middleeastjournalofpositivepsychology.org/index.php/mejpp/article/view/33.
  108. Rashid, T. (2015). Positive psychotherapy: A strength-based approach. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(1), 25–40.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2014.920411.Google Scholar
  109. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141–166.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141.Google Scholar
  110. Ryan, R. M., Huta, V., & Deci, E. L. (2008). Living well: A self-determination theory perspective on eudaimonia. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 139–170.Google Scholar
  111. Sahraian, A., Gholami, A., Javadpour, A., & Omidvar, B. (2013). Association between religiosity and happiness among a group of Muslim undergraduate students. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(2), 450–453.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-011-9484-6.Google Scholar
  112. Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  113. Seligman, M. E. P., Ernst, R., Gillham, J., Reivich, K., & Linkins, M. (2009). Positive education: Positive psychology and classroom interventions. Oxford Review of Education, 35(3), 293–311.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03054980902934563.Google Scholar
  114. Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410–421.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.60.5.410.Google Scholar
  115. Shapira, L. B., & Mongrain, M. (2010). The benefits of self-compassion and optimism exercises for individuals vulnerable to depression. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 377–389.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2010.516763.Google Scholar
  116. Sheldon, K. M., Abad, N., Ferguson, Y., Gunz, A., Houser-Marko, L., Nichols, C. P., et al. (2010). Persistent pursuit of need-satisfying goals leads to increased happiness: A 6-month experimental longitudinal study. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 39–48.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-009-9153-1.Google Scholar
  117. Sheldon, K. M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2006). How to increase and sustain positive emotion: the effects of expressing gratitude and visualizing best possible selves. Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 73–82.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760500510676.Google Scholar
  118. Shoshani, A., & Steinmetz, S. (2014). Positive psychology at school: A school-based intervention to promote adolescents’ mental health and well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(6), 1289–1311.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9476-1.Google Scholar
  119. Sin, N., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2009). Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: A practice-friendly meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 467–487.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20593.Google Scholar
  120. Suldo, S., Thalji, A., & Ferron, J. (2011). Longitudinal academic outcomes predicted by early adolescents’ subjective well-being, psychopathology, and mental health status yielded from a dual factor model. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(1), 17–30.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2010.536774.Google Scholar
  121. Tajdin, M. (2015). مفهوم السعادة في الفكر الإسلامي الوسيط: من الفلسفة إلى الدين (The concept of happiness in medieval Islamic thought: From philosophy to religion). Middle East Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(1), 36–44. Retrieved from https://middleeastjournalofpositivepsychology.org/index.php/mejpp/article/view/28.
  122. Tay, L., Li, M., Myers, D., & Diener, E. (2014). Religiosity and subjective well-being: An international perspective. In C. Kim-Prieto (Ed.), Religion and spirituality across cultures (pp. 163–175). New York: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-8950-9_9.Google Scholar
  123. Thomas, J., Mutawa, M., Furber, S. W., & Grey, I. (2016). Religiosity: Reducing depressive symptoms amongst Muslim females in the United Arab Emirates. Middle East Journal of Positive Psychology, 2(1), 9–21. Retrieved from https://middleeastjournalofpositivepsychology.org/index.php/mejpp/article/view/41.
  124. Waterman, A., Schwartz, S., Zamboanga, B. Y., Robert, R., Williams, M., Bede Agocha, V., et al. (2010). The Questionnaire for Eudaimonic Well-Being: Psychometric properties, demographic comparisons, and evidence of validity. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(1), 41–61.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760903435208.Google Scholar
  125. Waters, L. (2011). A review of school-based positive psychology interventions. The Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 28(2), 75–90.  https://doi.org/10.1375/aedp.28.2.75.Google Scholar
  126. Watkins, P. C., Sparrow, A., & Webber, A. C. (2013). Taking care of business with gratitude. In J. F. Froh & A. C. Parks (Eds.), Activities for teaching positive psychology: A guide for instructors (pp. 119–128). Washington, DC: APA.  https://doi.org/10.1037/14042-019.Google Scholar
  127. Weiss, L. A., Westerhof, G. J., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2016). Can we increase psychological well-being? The effects of interventions on psychological well-being: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS ONE, 11(6), e0158092.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158092.Google Scholar
  128. White, M. A. (2016). Why won’t it stick? Positive psychology and positive education. Psychology of Well-Being, 6, 2.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13612-016-0039-1.Google Scholar
  129. White, M. A., & Waters, L. E. (2015). A case study of ‘The Good School:’ Examples of the use of Peterson’s strengths-based approach with students. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(1), 69–76.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2014.920408.Google Scholar
  130. Wong, P. T. P. (2011). Positive psychology 2.0: Towards a balanced interactive model of the good life. Canadian Psychology, 52(2), 69–81.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022511.Google Scholar
  131. Wong, P. T. P. (2013). Cross-cultural positive psychology. In K. Keith (Ed.), Encyclopedia of cross-cultural psychology. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell Publishers.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118339893.wbeccp426.Google Scholar
  132. Zemojtel-Piotrowska, M., Piotrowska, J. P., Osin, E. N., Cieciuch, J., Adams, B. G., Ardi, R., et al. (2018). The mental health continuum-short form: The structure and application for cross-cultural studies—A 38 nation study. Journal of Clinical Psychology.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22570.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Canadian University DubaiDubaiUAE
  2. 2.University of British ColumbiaKelownaCanada
  3. 3.Keimyung UniversityDaeguSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations