Advertisement

Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 1689–1715 | Cite as

When Life Happens: Investigating Short and Long-Term Effects of Life Stressors on Life Satisfaction in a Large Sample of Norwegian Mothers

  • Gunvor Marie DyrdalEmail author
  • Espen Røysamb
  • Ragnhild Bang Nes
  • Joar Vittersø
Research Paper

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of major life stressors on the short and long-term life satisfaction (LS) of Norwegian mothers using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa, N = 46,342). Data on LS were collected at T1 (6 months postpartum) and T3 (36 months postpartum), and data on life stressors at T2 (18 months postpartum) and T3. Altogether, 24,216 participants reported life stressors between T1 and T2, and 25,284 between T2 and T3. Life stressors had significant negative short-term and long-term effects on LS. Experiencing multiple stressors increased the negative impact on satisfaction linearly. Relationship dissolution, economic problems, becoming seriously ill, and conflict with family/friends most strongly predicted short-term LS (Cohen’s d − .18 to − 1.15). Being pressured to sexual acts, relationship dissolution, economic problems and becoming seriously ill most strongly predicted long-term LS (Cohen’s d − .15 to − 1.05). When calculating the overall societal burden of life stressors, economic problems, conflict with family/friends, and work-related problems were shown to be particularly detrimental to maternal life satisfaction.

Keywords

Life satisfaction Life events Stressors Short-term Long-term Wellbeing Societal burden The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is supported by the Norwegian Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education and Research, NIH/NIEHS (Contract No NO-ES-75558), NIH/NINDS (Grant No. 1 UO1 NS 047537-01), and the Norwegian Research Council/FUGE (Grant No. 151918/S10). We are grateful to all participating families in Norway who take part in this ongoing cohort study.

References

  1. Ahrens, C. J. C., & Ryff, C. D. (2006). Multiple roles and well-being: Sociodemographic and psychological moderators. Sex Roles, 55, 801–815.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-006-9134-8.Google Scholar
  2. Ainsworth, M. S. (1991). Attachments and other affectional bonds across the life cycle. In C. M. Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde, & P. Marris (Eds.), Attachment across the life cycle. London: Tavistock/Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Barimani, M., Vikström, A., Rosander, M., & Berlin, A. (2017). Facilitating and inhibiting factors in transition to parenthood—Ways in which health professionals can support parents. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences.  https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12367.Google Scholar
  4. Barnett, R. C., & Hyde, J. S. (2001). Women, men, work and family: An expansionist theory. American Psychologist, 56, 781–796.Google Scholar
  5. Bauer, J. M., & Sousa-Poza, A. (2015). Impact of informal caregiving on caregiver employment, health, and family. Journal of Population Ageing, 8, 113–145.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12062-015-9116-0.Google Scholar
  6. Ben-Zur, H. (2012). Loneliness, optimism, and well-being among married, divorced, and widowed individuals. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 146, 23–36.Google Scholar
  7. Bergström, M., Fransson, E., Hjern, A., Köhler, L., & Wallby, T. (2014). Mental health in Swedish children living in joint physical custody and their parents’ life satisfaction: A cross-sectional study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 55, 433–439.  https://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12148.Google Scholar
  8. Bernheimer, L. P., Weisner, T. S., & Lowe, E. D. (2003). Impacts of children with troubles on working poor families: Mixed-method and experimental evidence. Mental Retardation, 41, 403–419.  https://doi.org/10.1352/0047-6765(2003)41%3c403:IOCWTO%3e2.0.CO;2.Google Scholar
  9. Boehm, J. K., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Does happiness promote career success? Journal of Career Assessment, 16, 101–116.Google Scholar
  10. Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience. Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive even after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59, 20–28.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.20.Google Scholar
  11. Boulet, S. L., Boyle, C. A., & Schieve, L. A. (2009). Health care use and health and functional impact of developmental disabilities among US children, 1997–2005. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 163, 19–26.Google Scholar
  12. Boyle, C. A., Boulet, S., Schieve, L. A., Cohen, R. A., Blumberg, S. J., Yeargin- Allsopp, M., et al. (2011). Trends in the prevalence of developmental disabilities in US children, 1997–2008. Pediatrics, 127, 1034–1042.Google Scholar
  13. Brickman, P., & Campbell, D. T. (1971). Hedonic relativism and planning the good society. In M. H. Appley (Ed.), Adaptation-level theory (pp. 287–305). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  14. Burns, R. A., & Machin, M. A. (2013). Psychological wellbeing and the diathesis-stress hypothesis model: The role of psychological functioning and quality of relations in promoting subjective well-being in a life events study. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 321–326.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.09.017.Google Scholar
  15. Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., Kalil, A., Hughes, M. E., Waite, L., & Thisted, R. A. (2008). Happiness and the invisible threads of social connection. The Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 195–219). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  16. Campbell, R., Dworkin, E., & Cabral, G. (2009). An ecological model of the impact of sexual assault on women’s mental health. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 10, 225–246.Google Scholar
  17. Chamberlain, K., & Zika, S. (1990). The minor events approach to stress: Support for the use of daily hassles. British Journal of Psychology, 81, 469–481.Google Scholar
  18. Charles, S. T., Piazza, J. R., Mogle, J., Sliwinski, M. J., & Almeida, D. M. (2013). The wear and tear of daily stressors on mental health. Psychological Science, 24, 733–741.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612462222.Google Scholar
  19. Clark, A. E., Frijters, P., & Shields, M. A. (2008). Relative income, happiness, and utility: An explanation for the Easterlin paradox and other puzzles. Journal of Economic Literature, 46, 95–144.  https://doi.org/10.2307/27646948.Google Scholar
  20. Coddington, R. D. (1972). The significance of life events as etiological factors in the disease of children—II. A study of a normal population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 16, 202–213.Google Scholar
  21. Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159.Google Scholar
  22. Coley, R. L., Ribar, D., & Votruba-Drzal, E. (2011). Do children’s behavior problems limit poor women’s labor market success? Journal of Marriage and Family, 73, 33–45.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00787.x.Google Scholar
  23. Coviello, L., Sohn, Y., Kramer, A. D. I., Marlow, C., Franceschetti, M., Christakis, N. A., et al. (2014). Detecting emotional contagion in massive social networks. PLoS ONE.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090315.Google Scholar
  24. Cuijpers, P., Weitz, E., Karyotaki, E., Garber, J., & Andersson, G. (2015). The effects of psychological treatment of maternal depression on children and parental functioning: A meta-analysis. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 24, 237–245.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-014-0660-6.Google Scholar
  25. Dearing, E. (2014). The state of research on children and families in poverty: Past, present, and future empirical avenues of promise. In K. McCartney, H. Yoshikawa, & L. Forcier (Eds.), Improving the odds for America’s children. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.Google Scholar
  26. Diener, E. (1994). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.Google Scholar
  27. Diener, E., & Chan, M. Y. (2011). Happy people live longer: Subjective well-being contributes to health and longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well- Being, 3, 1–43.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1758-0854.2010.01045.x.Google Scholar
  28. Diener, E., & Diener, C. (1996). Most people are happy. Psychological Science, 7, 181–185.Google Scholar
  29. Diener, E., Diener, C., Choi, H., & Oishi, S. (2018a). Revisiting “Most people are happy”—And discovering when they are not. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13, 166–170.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691618765111.Google Scholar
  30. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction With Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.Google Scholar
  31. Diener, E., & Lucas, R. E. (1999). Personality and subjective well-being. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 213–229). New York: Russell-Sage.Google Scholar
  32. Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2003). Personality, culture, and subjective well- being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Reviews of Psychology, 54, 403–425.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145056.Google Scholar
  33. Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Tay, L. (2018b). Advances in subjective well-being research. Nature Human Behavior.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-018-0307-6.Google Scholar
  34. Diener, E., Pressman, S. D., Hunter, J., & Delgadillo-Chase, D. (2017). If, why, and when subjective well-being influences health, and future needed research. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 9, 133–167.  https://doi.org/10.1111/aphw.12090.Google Scholar
  35. Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Very happy people. Psychological Science, 13, 81–84.Google Scholar
  36. Diener, E., & Tay, L. (2015). Subjective well-being and human welfare around the world as reflected in the Gallup World Poll. International Journal of Psychology, 50, 135–149.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12136.Google Scholar
  37. Dunn, E., & Norton, M. (2013). Happy money: The science of happier spending. London: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  38. Dyrdal, G. M., Røysamb, E., Nes, R. B., & Vittersø, J. (2011). Can a happy relationship predict a happy life? A population-based study of maternal well-being during the life transition of pregnancy, infancy, and toddlerhood. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 947–962.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-010-9238-2.Google Scholar
  39. Easterlin, R. A. (1974). Does economic growth improve the human lot? In P. A. David & M. W. Reder (Eds.), Nations and households in economic growth (pp. 89–125). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  40. Easterlin, R. A. (2013). Happiness and economic growth: The evidence. Discussion Paper Series, Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit, No. 7187. http://hdl.handle.net/10419/69363.
  41. Easterlin, R. A., McVey, L. A., Switek, M., Sawangfa, O., & Zweig, J. S. (2010). The happiness—Income paradox revisited. PNAS, 107, 22463–22468.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1015962107.Google Scholar
  42. Fisak, B., Holderfield, K. G., Douglas-Osborn, E., & Cartwright-Hatton, S. (2012). What do parents worry about? Examination of the construct of parent worry and the relation to parent and child anxiety. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 40, 542–557.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465812000410.Google Scholar
  43. Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive emotions broaden and build. In D. Patricia & P. Ashby (Eds.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 47, pp. 1–53). Cambridge: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  44. Glover, V. (2011). Annual research review: Prenatal stress and the origins of psychopathology: an evolutionary perspective. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 356–367.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02371.x.Google Scholar
  45. Glover, V. (2014). Maternal depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy and child outcome; what needs to be done. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 28, 25–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.08.017.Google Scholar
  46. Goldman-Mellor, S. J., Saxton, K. B., & Catalano, R. C. (2010). Economic contraction and mental health. A review of the evidence, 1990–2009. International Journal of Mental Health, 39, 6–31.  https://doi.org/10.2753/IMH0020-7411390201.Google Scholar
  47. Goldsmith, A. H., Veum, J. R., & Darity, W. (1996). The impact of labor force history on self-esteem and its component parts, anxiety, alienation and depression. Journal of Economic Psychology, 17, 183–220.Google Scholar
  48. Goodman, S. H. (2007). Depression in mothers. The Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 107–135.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091401.Google Scholar
  49. Graham, C., Chattopadhyay, S., & Picon, M. (2010). The Easterlin paradox and other paradoxes: Why both sides of the debate may be correct. In E. Diener, J. F. Helliwell, & D. Kahneman (Eds.), International differences in well-being (pp. 247–288). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Green, F. (2011). Unpacking the misery multiplier: How employability, modifies the impacts of unemployment and job insecurity on life satisfaction and mental health. Journal of Health Economics, 30, 265–276.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2010.12.005.Google Scholar
  51. Halfon, N., Houtrow, A., Larson, K., & Newacheck, P. W. (2012). The changing landscape of disability in childhood. The Future of Children, 22, 13–42.Google Scholar
  52. Hauge, L. J., Nes, R. B., Kornstad, T., Kristensen, P., Irgens, L. M., Landolt, M. A., et al. (2015). Maternal sick leave due to psychiatric disorders following the birth of a child with special health care needs. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 40(8), 804–813.Google Scholar
  53. Headey, B. (2013). Set-point theory may now need replacing: Death of a paradigm? In S. David, I. Boniwell, & A. C. Ayers (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of happiness (pp. 887–900). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Headey, B., & Wearing, A. (1989). Personality, life events, and subjective well-being: Toward a dynamic equilibrium model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 731–739.Google Scholar
  55. Hobbs, D. F. (1968). Transition to parenthood: A replication and an extension. Journal of Marriage and Family, 30, 413–417.Google Scholar
  56. Holmes, E. K., Erickson, J. J., & Hill, E. J. (2012). Doing what she thinks is best: Maternal psychological wellbeing and attaining desired work situations. Human Relations, 65, 501–522.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726711431351.Google Scholar
  57. Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., & Layton, J. B. (2010). Social relationships and mortality risk: A meta-analytic review. PLoS Medicine, 7(2–20), e1000316.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000316.Google Scholar
  58. Howell, R. T., Kern, M. L., & Lyubomirksy, S. (2007). Health benefits: Meta- analytically determining the impact of well-being on objective health outcomes. Health Psychology Review, 1, 83–136.Google Scholar
  59. Infurna, F. J., Gerstorf, D., Ram, N., & Heckhausen, J. (2016). Analytic strategies for the study of adaptation to major life events: making the most of large-scale longitudinal surveys. In Methodological issues of longitudinal surveys (pp. 19–35). Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  60. Infurna, F. J., Wiest, M., Gerstorf, D., Ram, N., Schupp, J., Wagner, G. G., et al. (2016b). Changes in life satisfaction when losing one’s spouse: individual differences in anticipation, reaction, adaptation and longevity in the German Socio-economic Panel Study (SOEP). Ageing & Society.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686x15001543.Google Scholar
  61. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). (2016). Norway: State of the Nation’s Health: Findings from the global burden of disease. Seattle, WA: IHME.Google Scholar
  62. Kahneman, D., & Deaton, A. (2010). High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States of America (PNAS), 107, 16489–16493.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011492107.Google Scholar
  63. Kanner, A. D., Coyne, J. C., Schaefer, C., & Lazarus, R. S. (1981). Comparison of two modes of stress measurement: Daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 1–39.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00844845.Google Scholar
  64. Kapteyn, A., Lee, J., Tassot, C., Vonkova, H., & Zamarro, G. (2015). Dimensions of subjective well-being. Social Indicators Research, 123, 625–660.Google Scholar
  65. Lazarus, R. S. (1986). Puzzles in the study of daily hassles. In R. K. Silbereisen, K. Eyferth, & G. Rudinger (Eds.), Development as action in context. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-02475-1_3.Google Scholar
  66. Lucas, R. E. (2005). Time does not heal all wounds: A longitudinal study of reaction and adaptation to divorce. Psychological Science, 16, 945–950.Google Scholar
  67. Lucas, R. E. (2007). Long-term disability is associated with lasting changes in subjective well-being: Evidence from two nationally representative longitudinal studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 717–730.Google Scholar
  68. Lucas, R. E. (2018). Reevaluating the strengths and weaknesses of self-report measures of subjective well-being. In E. Diener, S. Oishi, & L. Tay (Eds.), Handbook of subjective well-being. Noba Scholar Handbook series: Subjective well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers.Google Scholar
  69. Lucas, R. E., & Clark, A. E. (2006). Do people really adapt to marriage?. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 405–426.Google Scholar
  70. Lucas, R. E., Clark, A. E., Georgellis, Y., & Diener, E. (2004). Unemployment alters the set point for life satisfaction. Psychological Science, 15, 8–13.Google Scholar
  71. Lucas, R. E., & Schimmack, U. (2009). Income and well-being: How big is the gap between the rich and the poor? Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 75–78.Google Scholar
  72. Luhmann, M., Hofmann, W., Eid, M., & Lucas, R. E. (2011). Subjective well-being and adaptation to life events: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025948.Google Scholar
  73. Magnus, P., Birke, C., Vejrup, K., Haugan, A., Alsaker, E., Daltveit, A. K., et al. (2016). Cohort profile update: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). International Journal of Epidemiology, 45, 382–388.Google Scholar
  74. Maroto, M. L. (2015). Pathways into bankruptcy: Accumulating disadvantage and the consequences of adverse life events. Sociological Inquiry, 85, 183–216.  https://doi.org/10.1111/soin.12073.Google Scholar
  75. Marum, G., Clench-Aas, J., Nes, R. B., & Raanaas, R. K. (2013). The relationship between negative life events, psychological distress, and life satisfaction: A population-based study. Quality of Life Research, 23, 1–11.Google Scholar
  76. McMunn, A., Kelly, Y., Cable, N., & Bartley, M. (2010). Maternal employment and child socio-emotional behaviour: Longitudinal evidence from the millennium cohort study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 64, A32–A33.  https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2010.109553.Google Scholar
  77. Messing, J. T., Thaller, J., & Bagwell, M. (2014). Factors related to sexual abuse and forced sex in a sample of women experiencing police-involved intimate partner violence. Health and Social Work, 39, 181–191.  https://doi.org/10.1093/hsw/hlu026.Google Scholar
  78. Miller, B. C., & Sollie, D. L. (1980). Family stress, copying and adaptation. Family Relations, 29, 459–465.Google Scholar
  79. Murray, C. J. L., & Lopez, A. D. (1997). Alternative projections of mortality and disease by cause 1990–2020: Global burden of disease study. The Lancet, 349, 1498–1504.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07492-2.Google Scholar
  80. Næss, S., Blekesaune, M., & Jakobsson, N. (2015). Marital transitions and life satisfaction. Evidence from longitudinal data from Norway. Acta Sociologica, 58, 63–78.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0001699314563841.Google Scholar
  81. Nes, R. B., Hauge, L. J., Kornstad, T., Kristensen, P., Landolt, M. A., Eskedal, L. T., et al. (2014a). The impact of child behaviour problems on maternal employment: A longitudinal cohort study. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 35, 351–361.Google Scholar
  82. Nes, R. B., Røysamb, E., Hauge, L. J., Kornstad, T., Landolt, M., Irgens, L., et al. (2014b). Maternal well-being and psychological distress: A prospective longitudinal study of mothers giving birth to children with congenital anomalies. Developmental Psychology, 50, 1827–1839.Google Scholar
  83. Nes, R. B., Røysamb, E., Tambs, K., Harris, J. R., & Reichborn-Kjennerud, T. (2006). Subjective well-being: Genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change. Psychological Medicine, 36, 1033–1042.Google Scholar
  84. Nielsen, M. B., Magerøy, N., Gjerstad, J., & Einarsen, S. (2014). Workplace bullying and subsequent health problems. Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medisin, 134, 1233–1238.  https://doi.org/10.4045/tidsskr.13.0880.Google Scholar
  85. Nilsen, R. M., Vollset, S. E., Gjessing, H. K., Skjærven, R., Melve, K. K., Schrøder, P., et al. (2009). Self-selection and bias in a large prospective pregnancy cohort in Norway. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 23, 597–608.Google Scholar
  86. North, R. J., Holahan, C. J., Moos, R. H., & Cronkite, R. C. (2008). Family support, family income, and happiness: A 10-year perspective. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 475–483.Google Scholar
  87. Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, Revised Protocol (2010). Norwegian Institute of Public Health.Google Scholar
  88. O’Hara, M. W., & Wisner, K. L. (2014). Perinatal mental illness: Definition, description, and aetiology. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 28, 3–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.09.002.Google Scholar
  89. Oishi, S. (2012). Relational wealth. In The psychological wealth of nations: Do happy people make a happy society? (pp 57–72). West Sussex: Wiley.Google Scholar
  90. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2008). The Satisfaction With Life Scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3, 137–152.Google Scholar
  91. Pearlin, L. I., Menaghan, E. G., Lieberman, M. A., & Mullan, J. T. (1981). The stress process. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 337–356.Google Scholar
  92. Powdthavee, N. (2008). Putting a price tag on friends, relatives, and neighbours: Using surveys of life satisfaction to value social relationships. The Journal of Socio- Economics, 37, 1459–1480.Google Scholar
  93. Reneflot, A., & Evensen, M. (2014). Unemployment and psychological distress among young adults in the Nordic countries: A review of the literature. International Journal of Social Welfare, 23, 3–15.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ijsw.12000.Google Scholar
  94. Rhoades, G. K., Dush, C. M. K., Atkins, D. C., Stanley, S. M., & Markman, H. J. (2011). Breaking up is hard to do: The impact of unmarried relationship dissolution on mental health and life satisfaction. Journal of Family Psychology, 25, 366–374.Google Scholar
  95. Robinson, K., Kennedy, N., & Harmon, D. (2012). Happiness: A review of evidence relevant to occupational science. Journal of Occupational Science, 19, 150–164.Google Scholar
  96. Røsand, G. M. B., Slinning, K., Eberhart-Gran, M., Røysamb, E., & Tambs, K. (2012). The buffering effect of relationship satisfaction on emotional distress in couples. BioMed Central Public Health, 12, 66–79.Google Scholar
  97. Rosenzweig, J. M., Brennan, E. M., Huffstutter, K., & Bradley, J. R. (2008). Child care and employed parents of children with emotional or behavioral disorders. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 16(2), 78–89.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1063426607312538.Google Scholar
  98. Roy, R. N., Schumm, W. R., & Britt, S. L. (2014). Transition to Parenthood. New York, NY: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7768-6.Google Scholar
  99. Seery, M. D., Holman, E. A., & Silver, R. C. (2010). Whatever does not kill us: Cumulative lifetime adversity, vulnerability, and resilience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 1025–1041.Google Scholar
  100. Sitnik, S. L., Masyn, K., Ontai, L. L., & Conger, K. J. (2016). Mothers’physical illness in one- and two-parent families. Journal of Family Issues, 37, 902–920.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X14536563.Google Scholar
  101. Sonnentag, S., Unger, D., & Nägel, I. J. (2013). Workplace conflict and employee well-being: The moderating role of detachment from work during off-job time. International Journal of Conflict Management, 24, 166–183.  https://doi.org/10.1108/10444061311316780.Google Scholar
  102. Steptoe, A., Deaton, A., & Stone, A. A. (2015). Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing. The Lancet, 385, 640–648.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61489-0.Google Scholar
  103. Stickler, G. B., Salter, M., Broughton, D. D., & Alario, A. (1991). Parents´worries about children compared to actual risks. Clinical Pediatrics, 30, 522–528.Google Scholar
  104. Suarez, E. B., Lafrenière, G., & Harrison, J. (2016). Scoping review of interventions supporting mothers with mental illness: Key outcomes and challenges. Community Mental Health Journal, 52, 927–936.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-016-0037-z.Google Scholar
  105. Taylor, S. (2012). Transformation through suffering: A study of individuals who have experienced positive psychological transformation following periods of intense turmoil. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 52, 30–52.Google Scholar
  106. Teigen, K. H., & Glad, K. A. (2011). “It Could have been Much Worse”: From travelers’ accounts of two natural disasters. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11, 237–249.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2011.606610.Google Scholar
  107. Thoits, P. A. (1983). Multiple identities and psychological well-being: A reformulation and test of the social isolation hypothesis. American Sociological Review, 48, 174–187.Google Scholar
  108. Umberson, D., & Montez, J. K. (2010). Social relationships and health: A flashpoint for health policy. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51, 54–66.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022146510383501.Google Scholar
  109. Usdansky, M., Gordon, R., Wang, X., & Gluzman, A. (2012). Depression risk among mothers of young children: The role of employment preferences, labor force status and job quality. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 33(1), 83–94.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10834-011-9260-5.Google Scholar
  110. Walzer, S. (1996). Thinking about the baby: Gender and division of infant care. Social Problems, 43, 219–234.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3096999.Google Scholar
  111. Warr, P. (1999). Well-being and the workplace. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 394–414). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  112. Zachrisson, H. D., & Dearing, E. (2015). Family income dynamics, early childhood education and care, and early child behavior problems in Norway. Child Development, 86, 425–440.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Norwegian University of Science and Technology in GjøvikGjøvikNorway
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.Norwegian Institute of Public HealthOsloNorway
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of TromsøTromsøNorway

Personalised recommendations