Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 19, Issue 8, pp 2445–2463 | Cite as

Positioning Implicit Theories of Well-Being Within a Positivity Framework

  • Holli-Anne PassmoreEmail author
  • Andrew J. Howell
  • Mark D. Holder
Research Paper


Two studies with 230 and 363 Canadian undergraduate students tested the relationship between incremental theories of well-being (i.e., beliefs regarding the malleability of well-being) and a positive mental outlook. In Study 1, incremental theories of well-being were associated with Prioritizing Positivity (purposely incorporating pleasant activities into one’s daily routine) and showed a positive relationship with several other indicators of positive mental functioning (e.g., intrinsic motivation, eudaimonic motivation). In Study 2, incremental theories of well-being were associated with Positivity (viewing life and experiences with a positive outlook) and were positively correlated with additional indicators of positive mental functioning (e.g., harmony in life, self-compassion). In both studies, the relationship between incremental theories of well-being and both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being held true across different measures. A synthesis of major results using a Bayesian meta-analytic procedure suggested a moderate association between an incremental well-being mindset and well-being. Results of these studies help to situate incremental views toward well-being within a broad positivity framework, and to expand the nomological web of correlates of implicit theories of well-being.


Implicit theories Well-being Positivity Incremental Entity Mindset 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Holli-Anne Passmore
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andrew J. Howell
    • 2
  • Mark D. Holder
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of British ColumbiaKelownaCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyMacEwan UniversityEdmontonUSA

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