Self-Efficacy, Emotions and Work Engagement Among Teachers: A Two Wave Cross-Lagged Analysis
- 679 Downloads
The aim of this study was to examine the reciprocal relations between teachers’ work engagement and their emotions, both positive and negative, and experienced in relation to their students, by implementing a two-wave panel design. The predictive role of self-efficacy with respect to teachers’ emotions and work engagement was also explored. The study included a sample of 941 teachers from various state schools in Croatia. A cross-lagged analysis demonstrated the reciprocal nature of the relationship between emotions and work engagement. Teachers who reported higher levels of positive emotions of joy, pride and love at first time point, tended to be more engaged in their work at subsequent assessment. The association between negative emotions and work engagement showed the opposite direction—teachers who experienced more anger, fatigue, and hopelessness in the first measurement point, were also less engaged at second time of assessment. Furthermore, teachers who were more engaged in their work in the first time point, also reported about lower levels of negative emotions but higher levels of positive emotions 6 months later. At last, teachers with higher perceived self-efficacy are more engaged in their work, experience more joy, pride and love, and less anger, fatigue and hopelessness, towards their students. However, these effects did not hold upon control of baseline levels of emotions and work engagement.
KeywordsSelf-efficacy Emotions Work engagement Teachers
This work was supported by the Croatian Science Foundation (Grant No. 5035).
- Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
- Burić, I., Slišković, A. & Macuka, I. (2017). A mixed-method approach to assessment of teachers’ emotions: Development and validation of Teacher Emotion Questionnaire (TEQ). Educational Psychology (in review).Google Scholar
- Carson, R. L. (2006). Exploring the episodic nature of teachers’ emotions as it relates to teacher burnout. West Lafayette: Purdue University.Google Scholar
- Frenzel, A. C. (2014). Teacher emotions. In E. A. Linnenbrink-Garcia & R. Pekrun (Eds.), International handbook of emotions in education (pp. 494–519). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Gorgievski, M. J., & Hobfoll, S. E. (2008). Work can burn us out and fire us up. In J. R. B. Halbesleben (Ed.), Handbook of stress and burnout in health care (pp. 7–22). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.Google Scholar
- Jerusalem, M., & Scwarzer, R. (1992). Self-efficacy as a resource factor in stress appraisal processes. In R. Scwarzer (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (pp. 195–213). Washington DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
- Kahn, W. A. (1990). The psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 692–724.Google Scholar
- Leiter, M. P., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Work engagement: An introduction. In A. B. Bakker & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and practice (pp. 1–9). London and New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (1997). The truth about burnout: How organizations cause personal stress and what to do it about it. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2010). Mplus user’s guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Pekrun, R., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (Eds.). (2014). International handbook of emotions in education. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Salanova, M., Schaufeli, W. B., Xanthopoulou, D., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). The gain spiral of resources and work engagement: Sustaining a positive worklife. In A. B. Bakker & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research (pp. 118–131). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Schaubroeck, J., & Jones, J. (2000). Antecedents of workplace emotional labor dimensions and moderators of their effects on physical symptoms. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(2), 163–183. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(200003)21:2<163:AID-JOB37>3.0.CO;2-L.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2003). Utrecht work engagement scale: Preliminary manual. Department of Psychology, Utrecht University, Netherlands. Available from www.schaufeli.com.
- Schaufeli, W. B., Taris, T., Le Blanc, P., Peeters, M., Bakker, A., & De Jonge, J. (2001). Maakt arbeid gezond? Op zoek naar de bevlogen werknemer [Can work produce health? The quest for the engaged worker]. De Psycholoog, 36, 422–428.Google Scholar
- Scherer, K. R., Schorr, A., & Johnstone, T. (2001). Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Schuman, V., & Scherer, K. R. (2014). Concepts and structures of emotions. In R. Pekrun & L. Linnenbrink-Garcia (Eds.), International handbook of emotions in education (pp. 13–35). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Schwarzer, R., Schmitz, G. S., & Daytner, G. T. (1999). The teacher self-efficacy scale (On-line publication). Available at http://www.fu-berlin.de/gesund/skalen/t_se.htm.
- Weiss, H. M., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior: An annual series of analytical essays and critical reviews (pp. 1–74). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar