Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 19, Issue 7, pp 1903–1916 | Cite as

Exploring the Association Between Peace of Mind and Academic Engagement: Cross-Sectional and Cross-Lagged Panel Studies in the Philippine Context

  • Jesus Alfonso D. DatuEmail author
  • Jana Patricia M. Valdez
  • Ronnel B. King
Research Paper


Peace of mind (PoM) has been associated with positive psychological and well-being outcomes. However, it seems that limited research has been done to assess the role of PoM in the educational setting. The present study addressed this gap through examining the association of PoM with academic engagement via a cross-sectional (Study 1) and a two-wave cross-lagged study (Study 2) in the Philippine setting. Results of hierarchical regression in Study 1 revealed that PoM was positively associated academic engagement even after controlling for relevant demographic variables, positive affect, and life satisfaction. In Study 2, results of the cross-lagged structural equation modeling showed that Time 1 PoM was associated with higher extent of Time 2 academic engagement even after controlling for autoregressor effects, Time 1 positive affect, and Time 1 life satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.


Academic engagement Peace of mind Well-being 


  1. Archambault, I. (2009). Adolescent behavioral, affective, and cognitive engagement in school: Relation to dropout. Journal of School Health, 79, 408–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ciarrochi, J., Atkins, P. W. B., Hayes, L. L., Sahdra, B. K., & Parker, P. (2016). Contextual positive psychology: Policy recommendations for implementing positive psychology in schools. Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Coffey, J. K., Wray-Lake, L., Mashek, D., & Branand, B. (2016). A multi-study examination of well-being theory in college and community samples. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17, 187–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Datu, J. A. D. (2015). The synergistic interplay between positive emotions and maximization enhances meaning in life: A study in a collectivist context. Current Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s12144-015-9314-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Datu, J. A. D. (2017). Peace of mind, academic motivation, and academic achievement in Filipino high school students. Spanish Journal of Psychology. doi: 10.1017/sjp.2017.19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Diener, E., & Chan, M. (2011). Happy people live longer: Subjective well-being contributes to health and longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-being, 3, 1–43.Google Scholar
  7. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. (2004). School engagement: potential of the concept: state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74, 59–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive emotions broaden and build. In E. Ashby Plant & P. G. Devine (Eds.), Advances on Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 47, pp. 1–53). Burlington: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  10. Froh, J. J., Sefick, W. J., & Emmons, R. A. (2008). Counting blessings in early adolescents: An experimental study of gratitude and subjective well-being. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 213–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garland, E. L., Fredrickson, B. L., Kring, A. M., Johnson, D. P., Meyer, P. S., & Penn, D. L. (2010). Upward spirals of positive emotions counter downward spirals of negativity: Insights from the broaden-and-build theory and affective neuroscience on the treatment of emotion dysfunctions and deficits psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 849–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hicks, J. A., & King, L. A. (2007). Meaning in life and seeing the big picture: Positive affect and global focus. Cognition & Emotion, 21, 1577–1584.Google Scholar
  13. Isen, A. M., & Reeve, J. M. (2005). The influence of positive affect on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: Facilitating enjoyment of play, responsible work behavior, and self-control. Motivation and Emotion, 29, 297–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kindell, M. K., & Whitney, D. J. (2001). Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional research designs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 114–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. King, R. B., & Areepattamannil, S. (2014). What students feel in school influences the strategies they use for learning: Academic emotions and cognitive/meta-cognitive strategies. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 8, 18–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. King, R. B., McInerney, D. M., Ganotice, F. A., & Villarosa, J. B. (2015). Positive affect catalyzes academic engagement. Learning and Individual Differences, 39, 64–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Layous, K., Nelson, S. K., Oberle, E., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2012). Kindness counts: Prompting prosocial behavior in preadolescents boosts peer acceptance and well-being. PLoS ONE, 7(12), e51380. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee, Y. C., Lin, Y. C., Huang, C. L., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). The construct and measurement of peace of mind. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 571–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lewis, A. D., Huebner, E. S., Malone, P. S., & Valois, R. F. (2011). Life satisfaction and student engagement in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 249–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lewis, A. D., Huebner, E. S., Reschly, A. L., & Valois, R. F. (2009). The incremental validity of positive emotions in predicting school functioning. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 27, 397–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Little, R. J. A. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83, 1198–1202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 151–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Marsh, H. W., & Yeung, A. S. (1998). Top-down, bottom up, and horizontal models: The direction of causality in multidimensional, hierarchical self-concept models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 509–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Morling, B., Kitayama, S., & Miyamoto, Y. (2002). Cultural practices emphasize influence in the United States and adjustment in Japan. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 311–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ng, Z. J., Huebner, S. E., & Hills, K. J. (2015). Life satisfaction and academic performance in early adolescents: Evidence for reciprocal association. Journal of School Psychology, 53, 479–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pietarinen, J., Soini, T., & Pyhältö, K. (2014). Student’s emotional and cognitive engagement as the determinants of well-being and achievement in school. International Journal of Educational Research, 67, 40–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8, 23–74.Google Scholar
  29. Skinner, E. A., Kindermann, T. A., & Furrer, C. (2009). A motivational perspective on engagement and disaffection: Conceptualization and assessment of children’s behavioral and emotional participation in academic activities in the classroom. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69, 493–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stiglbauer, B., Gnambs, T., Gamsjäger, M., & Batinic, B. (2013). The upward spiral of adolescents' positive school experiences and happiness: Investigating reciprocal effects over time. Journal of School Psychology, 51, 231–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Suh, E. M., & Koo, J. (2011). A concise measure of subjective well-being (COMOSWB): Scale development and validation. Korean Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, 25, 96–114.Google Scholar
  32. Suldo, S., Thalji, A., & Ferron, J. (2011). Longitudinal academic outcomes predicted by early adolescents’ subjective well-being, psychopathology, and mental health status yielded from a dual-factor model. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6, 17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tsai, J. L., Knutson, B., & Fung, H. H. (2006). Cultural variation in affect valuation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 288–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Upadyaya, K., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2013). Development of school engagement in association with academic success and well-being in varying social contexts: A review of empirical research. European Psychologist, 18, 136–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Villavicencio, F., & Bernardo, A. B. I. (2013). Positive academic emotions moderate the relationship between self-regulation and academic achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 329–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wolters, C. A. (2004). Advancing achievement goal theory: Using goal structures and goal orientations to predict students’ motivation, cognition, and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 236–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wright, T. A., Cropanzano, R., & Bonett, D. G. (2007). The moderating role of employee positive well-being on the relation between job satisfaction and job performance. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Xu, W., Oei, T. P. S., Liu, X., Wang, X., & Ding, C. (2016). The moderating and mediating roles of self-acceptance and tolerance to others in the relationship between mindfulness and subjective well-being. Journal of Health Psychology, 21, 1446–1456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jesus Alfonso D. Datu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jana Patricia M. Valdez
    • 2
  • Ronnel B. King
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Learning, Development, and Diversity, Faculty of EducationThe University of Hong KongHong Kong SARChina
  2. 2.Division of Information Technology Studies, Faculty of EducationThe University of Hong KongHong Kong SARChina
  3. 3.Department of Curriculum and InstructionThe Education University of Hong KongHong Kong SARChina

Personalised recommendations