Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 755–779 | Cite as

Why Managerial Women are Less Happy Than Managerial Men

  • Hilke BrockmannEmail author
  • Anne-Maren Koch
  • Adele Diederich
  • Christofer Edling
Research Paper


Women with managerial careers are significantly less satisfied with their life than their male counterparts. Why? In a representative German panel dataset (GSOEP) we find biological constraints and substitutive mechanisms determining the subjective well-being of female managers. Women’s terminated fertility has a negative impact on women’s life satisfaction between the ages of 35 and 45, when managerial careers usually take off. Money and spare time can compensate for this biological difference. But to maintain an equivalent level of happiness, women need to be compensated by much more income for each hour of spare time given up than men do. So, in order to reach better gender equality in leadership positions, women must be either paid higher incomes (on average around 10%) or must be incentivized with more spare time than men. In the conclusion, we speculate on a new mix of carrots and sticks for advanced careers in order to boost female representation in leadership positions.


Happiness Life satisfaction Leadership Managers Gender differences Gender studies Career preferences 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Data ClinicEuropean University InstituteSan Domenico di FiesoleItaly
  2. 2.Jacobs University BremenBremenGermany
  3. 3.Lund UniversityLundSweden

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