Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp 1815–1840 | Cite as

Religiosity and Life Satisfaction: A Multi-dimensional Approach

  • Volkan YeniarasEmail author
  • Tugra Nazli Akarsu
Research Paper


In this paper we employ a unique data set of 413 adults and scrutinize over the linear and non-linear relationship of religious adherence to life satisfaction. The findings confirm the previous studies regarding the positive linear and curvilinear relationship between the uni-dimensional religiosity and subjective well-being. To deepen the understanding of the relationship between religiosity and subjective well-being, the authors make use of a multi-dimensional religiosity scale. Via dissecting religiosity into different dimensions, we show when life satisfaction is in negative, positive, linear and/or curvilinear relationship with religiosity. The empirical evidence shows that the relationships between the dimensions of religiosity on life satisfaction are non-linear. Specifically, we demonstrate that there exist non-linear relations of ideological and consequential dimensions of religiosity to life satisfaction.


Life satisfaction Religiosity Subjective well-being Multi-dimensional approach 


  1. Abu-Raiya, H., & Pargament, K. I. (2011). Empirically based psychology of Islam: Summary and critique of the literature. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 14(2), 93–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aghababaei, N. (2014). God, the good life, and HEXACO: The relations among religion, subjective wellbeing and personality. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 17, 284–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aghababaei, N., & Błachnio, A. (2014). Purpose in life mediates the relationship between religiosity and happiness: Evidence from Poland. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 17(8), 827–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aghili, M., & Venkatesh Kumar, G. (2008). Relationship between religious attitude and happiness among professional employees. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 34(4), 66–69.Google Scholar
  5. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  6. Allport, G. W., & Ross, J. M. (2011). Religious orientation scale. PsycTESTS Dataset. American Psychological Association (APA), 5, 432–443.Google Scholar
  7. AlMarri, T. S., Oei, T. P., & Al-Adawi, S. (2009). The development of the short Muslim practice and belief scale. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 12(5), 415–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modelling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Atkinson, M., Zibin, S., & Chuang, H. (1997). Characterizing quality of life among patients with chronic mental illness: A critical examination of the self-report methodology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154(1), 99–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Balswick, J. O., & Balkwell, J. W. (1978). Religious orthodoxy and emotionality. Review of Religious Research, 19(3), 308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barakat, H. (1993). The Arab world: Society, culture and state. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  14. Batson, C. D., Naifeh, S. J., & Pate, S. (1978). Social desirability, religious orientation, and racial prejudice. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 17(1), 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blaine, B., & Crocker, J. (1995). Religiousness, race, and psychological well-being: Exploring social psychological mediators. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21(10), 1031–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blanchflower, D. G., & Oswald, A. J. (2000). The rising well-being of the young. In D. G. Blanchflower & R. B. Freeman (Ed.), Youth employment and joblessness in advanced countries, (pp. 289–328). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blanchflower, D. G., & Oswald, A. J. (2008). Is well-being U-shaped over the life cycle? Social Science and Medicine, 66(8), 1733–1749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bonke, J., Deding, M., & Lausten, M. (2007). Time and money. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(2), 113–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Calasanti, T. M. (1996). Gender and life satisfaction in retirement: An assessment of the male model. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 51(1), S18–S29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Calvo, E. (2006). Does working longer make people healthier and happier? Work opportunities for older americans, Series 2. Retrieved Jan 27 2011 from
  21. Calvo, E., Haverstick, K., & Sass, S. A. (2007). What makes retirees happier: A gradual or ‘cold Turkey’ retirement? Work Opportunities for American Issue Brief, Series 2. Chesnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College.Google Scholar
  22. Caporale, G. M., Georgellis, Y., Tsitsianis, N., & Yin, Y. P. (2009). Income and happiness across Europe: Do reference values matter?. Journal of Economic Psychology, 30(1), 42–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clark, A. E., & Oswald, A. J. (1994). Unhappiness and unemployment. The Economic Journal, 104(424), 648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Clarke, K. (2005). The phantom menace: Omitted variable bias in econometric research. Conflict Management and Peace Science, 22(4), 341–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clarke, P. J., Marshall, V. W., Ryff, C. D., & Rosenthal, C. J. (2000). Well-being in Canadian seniors: Findings from the Canadian study of health and aging. Canadian Journal of Aging, 19(02), 139–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Comstock, G. W., & Partridge, K. B. (1972). Church attendance and health. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 25(12), 665–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cornwall, M., Albrecht, S. L., Cunningham, P. H., & Pitcher, B. L. (1986). The dimensions of religiosity: A conceptual model with an empirical test. Review of Religious Research, 27(3), 226–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Corrigan, J. D., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S., Wright, J., Bellon, K., & Carufel, P. (2013). The satisfaction with life scale. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 28(6), 489–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crandall, V. C., & Gozali, J. (1969). The social desirability responses of children of four religious-cultural groups. Child Development, 40(3), 751–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Delener, N. (1990). The effects of religious factors on perceived risk in durable goods purchase decisions. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 7(3), 27–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Demerath, N. J., & Letterman, K. J. (1969). The student parishioner: Radical rhetoric and traditional reality. In K. Underwood (Ed.), Version in The Church, The University and social policy. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Di Tella, R., MacCulloch, R. J., & Oswald, A. J. (2001). Preferences over inflation and unemployment: Evidence from surveys of happiness. American Economic Review, 91(1), 335–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Diener, E. (1996). Traits can be powerful, but are not enough: Lessons from subjective well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 30(3), 389–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American psychologist, 55(1), 34–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Diener, E., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2009). Will money increase subjective well-being? A literature review and guide to needed research. Social Indicators Research Series, 57, 119–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Diener, E., & Clifton, D. (2002). Life satisfaction and religiosity in broad probability samples. Psychological Inquiry, 13(3), 206–209.Google Scholar
  38. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Easterlin, R. A. (1974). Does economic growth improve the human lot? Some empirical evidence. Nations and Households in Economic Growth, 89, 89–125.Google Scholar
  41. Ellison, C. G. (1991). Religious involvement and subjective well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 32(1), 80–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Essoo, N., & Dibb, S. (2004). Religious influences on shopping behaviour: An exploratory study. Journal of Marketing Management, 20(7–8), 683–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fischer, D. G., & Fick, C. (1993). Measuring social desirability: Short forms of the Marlowe–Crowne social desirability scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53(2), 417–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Francis, L. J., Ok, Ü., & Robbins, M. (2016). Religion and happiness: A study among university students in Turkey. Journal of Religion and Health. doi: 10.1007/s10943-016-0189-8.Google Scholar
  46. Francis, L. J., Yablon, Y. B., & Robbins, M. (2014). Religion and happiness: A study among female undergraduate students in Israel. International Journal of Jewish Research, 2014(7), 77–92.Google Scholar
  47. Francis, L. J., Ziebertz, H. G., & Lewis, C. A. (2003a). The relationship between religion and happiness among German students. Pastoral Psychology, 51(4), 273–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Francis, L. J., Ziebertz, H.-G., & Lewis, C. A. (2003b). The relationship between personality and religion among undergraduate students in Germany. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 24(1), 121–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fujita, F., & Diener, E. (2005). Life satisfaction set point: Stability and change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(1), 158–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gauthier, K. J., Christopher, A. N., Walter, M. I., Mourad, R., & Marek, P. (2006). Religiosity, religious doubt, and the need for cognition: Their interactive relationship with life satisfaction. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7(2), 139–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Genia, V. (1993). A psychometric evaluation of the Allport-Ross I/E scales in a religiously heterogeneous sample. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 32(3), 284–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ghorbani, N., Watson, P. J., Zarehi, J., & Shamohammadi, K. (2010). Muslim extrinsic cultural religious orientation and identity: Relationships with social and personal adjustment in Iran. Journal of Beliefs and Values, 31(1), 15–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gillings, V., & Joseph, S. (1996). Religiosity and social desirability: Impression management and self-deceptive positivity. Personality and Individual Differences, 21(6), 1047–1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Glock, C. Y. (1962). On the study of religious commitment. Religious Education Research Supplement, 42, 98–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Graham, C., Eggers, A., & Sukhtankar, S. (2004). Does happiness pay? An exploration based on panel data from Russia. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 55(3), 319–342.Google Scholar
  56. Hackney, C. H., & Sanders, G. S. (2003). Religiosity and mental health: A meta-analysis of recent studies. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42(1), 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hawkins, D. I., Best, R. J., & Coney, K. A. (1980). Consumer behavior: Implications for marketing strategy (3rd ed.). Plano, TX: Business Publications.Google Scholar
  58. Hayo, B., & Seifert, W. (2003). Subjective economic well-being in Eastern Europe. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24(3), 329–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Heller, D., Watson, D., & Ilies, R. (2006). The dynamic process of life satisfaction. Journal of Personality, 74(5), 1421–1450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Howell, A. J., Passmore, H. A., & Buro, K. (2013). Meaning in nature: Meaning in life as a mediator of the relationship between nature connectedness and well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(6), 1681–1696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Huber, S., & Huber, O. W. (2012). The centrality of religiosity scale (CRS). Religions, 3(3), 710–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hyman, C., & Handal, P. J. (2006). Definitions and evaluation of religion and spirituality items by religious professionals: A pilot study. Journal of Religion and Health, 45(2), 264–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jong, G. F. D., Faulkner, J. E., & Warland, R. H. (1976). Dimensions of religiosity reconsidered: Evidence from a cross-cultural study. Social Forces, 54(4), 866–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Joshanloo, M. (2013). The influence of fear of happiness beliefs on responses to the satisfaction with life scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(5), 647–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Joshanloo, M. & Weijers, D. (2015). Religiosity moderates the relationship between income inequality and life satisfaction across the globe. Social Indicators Research, pp. 1–20.Google Scholar
  66. Kavoossi, M. (2000). The globalization of business and the middle east: Opportunities and constraints. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.Google Scholar
  67. Kendler, K. S., Liu, X.-Q., Gardner, C. O., McCullough, M. E., Larson, D., & Prescott, C. A. (2003). Dimensions of religiosity and their relationship to lifetime psychiatric and substance use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(3), 496–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Koenig, H., King, D., & Carson, V. B. (2012). Handbook of religion and health. USA: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Larson, R. (1978). Thirty years of research on the subjective well-being of older Americans. Journal of Gerontology, 33(1), 109–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Larson, D., Sherill, K., Lyons, S., Craigie, F., Thielman, S., Greenwold, M., et al. (1992). Associations between dimensions of religious commitment and mental health. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149(4), 557–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lawrence, B. B. (1998). Shattering the Myth: Islam beyond violence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Lea, S. E. G., Webley, P., & Levine, R. M. (1993). The economic psychology of consumer debt. Journal of Economic Psychology, 14(1), 85–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lehman, E. C., & Shriver, D. W. (1968). Academic discipline as predictive of faculty religiosity. Social Forces, 47(2), 171–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Levin, J. (2014). Religion and happiness among Israeli Jews: Findings from the ISSP religion III survey. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(3), 593–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lewis, C. A., Maltby, J., & Day, L. (2005). Religious orientation, religious coping and happiness among UK adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(5), 1193–1202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lykken, D., & Tellegen, A. (1996). Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon. Psychological Science, 7(3), 186–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McDaniel, S. W., & Burnett, J. J. (1990). Consumer religiosity and retail store evaluative criteria. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 18(2), 101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McFarland, S. (1984). Psychology of religion: A call for a broader paradigm. American Psychologist, 39, 321–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. McIntosh, D. N., Silver, R. C., & Wortman, C. B. (1993). Religion’s role in adjustment to a negative life event: Coping with the loss of a child. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(4), 812–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mochon, D., Norton, M. I., & Ariely, D. (2011). Who benefits from religion? Social Indicators Research, 101(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mokhlis, S. (2008). Consumer religiosity and the importance of store attributes. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, 4(2), 122–133.Google Scholar
  82. Moltafet, G., Mazidi, M., & Sadati, S. (2010). Personality traits, religious orientation and happiness. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mroczek, D. K., & Kolarz, C. M. (1998). The effect of age on positive and negative affect: A developmental perspective on happiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(5), 1333–1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Neter, J., Wasserman, W., & Kutner, M. H. (1985). Applied linear statistical models: Regression, analysis of variance, and experimental design. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.Google Scholar
  85. Newby, G. D. (2002). A concise encyclopedia of islam. Oxford: Oneworld.Google Scholar
  86. Oswald, A. J. (1997). Happiness and economic performance. The Economic Journal, 107(445), 1815–1831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pace, S. (2014). Effects of intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity on attitudes toward products: Empirical evidence of value-expressive and social-adjustive functions. Journal of Applied Business Research, 30(4), 1227–1238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2008). The satisfaction with life scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3(2), 137–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rehman, A. U., & Shahbaz Shabbir, M. (2010). The relationship between religiosity and new product adoption. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 1(1), 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Robbins, M., & Francis, L. J. (1996). Are religious people happier? A study among undergraduates. In L. J. Francis, W. K. Kay, & W. S. Campbell (Eds.), Research in religious education (pp. 207–217). Leominster: Gracewing.Google Scholar
  91. Robbins, M., Francis, L. J., & Edwards, B. (2008). Prayer, personality and happiness: A study among undergraduate students in Wales. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 11(1), 93–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rodriquez, C. M. (1993). Relevancy, measurement and modelling of religiosity in consumer behaviour: The case of Peru. In Proceedings of the fourth symposium on cross cultural of consumer and business studies, Kahuka, Hawaii.Google Scholar
  93. Rogers, S. J. (1999). Wives’ income and marital quality: Are there reciprocal effects? Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 123–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sahraian, A., Gholami, A., Javadpour, A., & Omidvar, B. (2011). Association between religiosity and happiness among a group of Muslim undergraduate students. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(2), 450–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schiffman, L. G., Kanuk, L. L. (1991). Communication and consumer behavior. Consumer Behavior, 2, 268–306.Google Scholar
  96. Schneider, H., Krieger, J., & Bayraktar, A. (2011). The impact of intrinsic religiosity on consumers’ ethical beliefs: Does it depend on the type of religion? A comparison of Christian and Moslem consumers in Germany and Turkey. Journal of Business Ethics, 102(2), 319–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Shabbir, M.S. (2007). Factors affecting decision styles: An empirical study of Pakistani Managers, PhD thesis submitted in University of Malaya.Google Scholar
  98. Shin, D. C., & Johnson, D. M. (1978). Avowed happiness as an overall assessment of the quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 5(1–4), 475–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sillick, W. J., & Cathcart, S. (2013). The relationship between religious orientation and happiness: The mediating role of purpose in life. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 17(5), 494–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Snoep, L. (2008). Religiousness and happiness in three nations: A research note. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9(2), 207–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sood, J., & Nasu, Y. (1995). Religiosity and nationality. Journal of Business Research, 34(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Spanier, G. B., & Lewis, R. A. (1980). Marital quality: A review of the seventies. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 42, 812–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Stark, R., & Glock, C. Y. (1968). American piety: The nature of religious commitment. Social Forces, 47(2), 232.Google Scholar
  104. Stark, R., & Maier, J. (2008). Faith and happiness. Review of Religious Research, 50, 120–125.Google Scholar
  105. Steger, M. F., Pickering, N. K., Shin, J. Y., & Dik, B. J. (2010). Calling in work secular or sacred? Journal of Career Assessment, 18(1), 82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Strawbridge, W. J., Shema, S. J., Cohen, R. D., Roberts, R. E., & Kaplan, G. A. (1998). Religiosity buffers effects of some stressors on depression but exacerbates others. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 53B(3), S118–S126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Swinyard, W. R., Kau, A. K., & Phua, H. Y. (2001). Happiness, materialism, and religious experience in the US and Singapore. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2(1), 13–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Szekely, R. D., Opre, A., & Miu, A. C. (2015). Religiosity enhances emotion and deontological choice in moral dilemmas. Personality and Individual Differences, 79, 104–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Turley, D. (1995). The Irish consumer through Irish eyes: European values survey 1990. Irish Marketing Review, 8, 91–97.Google Scholar
  110. Vassar, M. (2008). A note on the score reliability for the satisfaction with life scale: An RG study. Social Indicators Research, 86(1), 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vitell, S. J., Keith, M., & Mathur, M. (2011). Antecedents to the justification of norm violating behavior among business practitioners. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(1), 163–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Walpole, S. C., McMillan, D., House, A., Cottrell, D., & Mir, G. (2013). Interventions for treating depression in Muslim patients: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 145(1), 11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wilkes, R. E., Burnett, J. J., & Howell, R. D. (1986). On the meaning and measurement of religiosity in consumer research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 14(1), 47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Witter, R. A., Stock, W. A., Okun, M. A., & Haring, M. J. (1985). Religion and subjective well-being: A quantitative synthesis. Review of Religious Research, 26(4), 332–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Worthington, E. L., Jr., Wade, N. G., Hight, T. L., Ripley, J. S., McCullough, M. E., Berry, J. W., et al. (2003). The religious commitment inventory-10: Development, refinement, and validation of a brief scale for research and counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50(1), 84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wright, L. S., Frost, C. J., & Wisecarver, S. J. (1993). Church attendance, meaningfulness of religion, and depressive symptomatology among adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 22(5), 559–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zinnbauer, B. J., Pargament, K. I., Cole, B., Rye, M. S., Butter, E. M., Belavich, T. G., et al. (1997). Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzying the fuzzy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 36(4), 549–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Business Administration, Department of ManagementUniversity of SharjahSharjahUnited Arab Emirates
  2. 2.Middlesex University Business School, Department of Marketing, Branding and TourismMiddlesex UniversityThe Burroughs, LondonUK

Personalised recommendations