Advertisement

Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 1507–1532 | Cite as

Peer violence in the School Environment and Its Relationship with Subjective Well-Being and Perceived Social Support Among Children and Adolescents in Northeastern Brazil

  • Stefania C. AlcantaraEmail author
  • Mònica González-Carrasco
  • Carme Montserrat
  • Ferran Viñas
  • Ferran Casas
  • Desirée P. Abreu
Research Paper

Abstract

The general aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between peer violence in the school environment (bullying), subjective well-being and perceived social support from the perspective of 910 children and adolescents in Years 6 and 7 of primary school (M = 11.90 years old; SD = 1.21). The participants were taken from 27 primary schools—both state-run and private, urban and rural—in Cearà state (Brazil). The following instruments were used: the Peer Victimization and Aggression Scale (EVAP); the Social Support from Family and Friends Scale (SSA); an index of satisfaction with different developmental contexts (home, school, neighbourhood); and as indicators of subjective well-being, three scales (Single item on Overall Life Satisfaction, Personal Well-Being Index School Children, Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale). Results indicated that aggression and victimization behaviours correlated negatively with the three well-being indicators used, while social support and satisfaction with different developmental contexts correlated positively. When considering type of involvement in bullying, victims, perpetrators and perpetrator–victims all scored lower on subjective well-being than those not involved in bullying. A model is also presented that explains 42 % of well-being. Understanding how bullying relates to well-being and how social support and favourable developmental contexts can act as protective factors are particularly important when designing public policies aimed at intervening in violence prevention and promoting well-being in childhood and adolescence.

Keywords

Peer violence in the school environment Bullying Subjective well-being Social support Childhood Adolescence 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study received the support of Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) Foundation, Brazilian Ministry of Education, Brasília, DF 70040-020, Brazil (Num. BEX: 0717.13.4 and Num. BEX: 0715.13.1). Particular thanks are due to Barney Griffiths for translating the paper into English.

References

  1. Albores-Gallo, L., Sauceda-García, J., Ruiz-Velasco, S., & Roque-Santiago, E. (2011). El acoso escolar (bullying) y su asociación con trastornos psiquiátricos en una muestra de escolares en México. Salud Pública de México, 53(3), 220–227.Google Scholar
  2. Bandeira, C., & Hutz, C. (2012). Bullying: prevalência, implicações e diferenças entre os gêneros. Revista Semestral da Associação Brasileira de Psicologia Escolar e Educacional, SP, 16(1), 35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bedin, L. M., & Sarriera, J. C. (2014). Propriedades psicométricas das escalas de bem-estar: PWI, SWLS, BMSLSS e CAS. Avaliação Psicológica, 13(2), 213–225.Google Scholar
  4. Bowlby, J. (1988). Cuidados maternos e saúde mental. São Paulo: Martins Fontes.Google Scholar
  5. Brito, R., & Koller, S. (1999). Desenvolvimento humano e redes de apoio social e afetivo. In A. M. Carvalho (Ed.), O mundo social da criança: Natureza e cultura em ação (pp. 115–126). São Paulo, SP: Casa do Psicólogo.Google Scholar
  6. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1987). La ecología del desarrollo humano: Experimentos en entornos naturales y diseñados. Barcelona: Paidós.Google Scholar
  7. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. (1998). The ecology of developmental process. The Handbook of Child Psychology, 1, 993–1029.Google Scholar
  8. Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rodgers, W. L. (1976). The quality of American life: Perceptions, evaluations and satisfactions. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  9. Casas, F. (1996). Bienestar social: Una introducción psicosociológica. Barcelona: PPU.Google Scholar
  10. Casas, F. (2010). El bienestar personal: su investigación en la infancia y la adolescencia. Encuentros en Psicología Social. Monográfico, 5(1), 85–101.Google Scholar
  11. Casas, F., Alfaro, J., Sarriera, J. C., Bedin, L., Grigoras, B., Bălţătescu, S., et al. (2015). El bienestar subjetivo en la infancia: Estudio de la comparabilidad de 3 escalas psicométricas en 4 países de habla latina. Psicoperspectivas, 14, 6–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Casas, F., & Bello, A. (2012). Calidad de vida y bienestar infantil subjetivo en España ¿Qué afecta al bienestar de niños y niñas españoles de 1º de ESO?. Madrid: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  13. Casas, F., Bello, A., González, M., & Aligué, M. (2013). Children’s subjective well-being measured using a composite index: What impacts Spanish first-year secondary education students’ subjective well-being? Child Indicators Research. doi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9182-x.Google Scholar
  14. Casas, F., Figuer, C., Gonzàlez, M., Malo, S., Alsinet, C., & Subarroca, S. (2007). The well-being of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents and their parents: Results from 1999 to 2003 Spanish samples. Social Indicators Research. doi: 10.1007/s11205-006-9059-1.Google Scholar
  15. Cattell, R. B. (1966). the scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1, 245–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cerezo, F. (2014). Soporte social en bullying. Análisis de la soledad de la víctima. Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 17(1), 123–132. doi: 10.6018/reifop.17.1.198881.Google Scholar
  17. Chen, J. K., & Wei, H. S. (2011). The impact of school violence on self-esteem and depression among Taiwanese junior high school students. Social Indicators Research, 100, 479–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38(5), 300–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Comisión sobre Determinantes Sociales de la Salud-CDSS. (2009). Informe de la Secretaria A62/9 del 16 de marzo de 2009. Ginebra: Organización Mundial de la Salud. http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/A62/A62_9-sp.pdf Accessed 3 Feb 2014.
  20. Cummins, R. A., Eckersley, R., Pallant, J., Van Vugt, J., & Misajon, R. (2003). Developing a national index of subjective wellbeing: The Australian unity wellbeing index. Social Indicators Research, 64(2), 159–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cummins, R. A., & Gullone, E. (2000). Why we should not use 5-point Likert scales: The case for subjective quality of life measurement. In Proceedings second international conference on quality of life in cities (pp 74–93). Singapore: National University of Singapore.Google Scholar
  22. Cunha, J. M., Weber, L. N., & Steiner, P. (2009). Escala de vitimização e agressão entre pares (EVAP). In L. Weber, & M. A. Dessen (Org.). Pesquisando a Família-Instrumentos para Coleta e Análise de Dados. Curitiba: Juruá.Google Scholar
  23. Demaray, M. K., & Malecki, C. K. (2003). Perceptions of the frequency and importance of social support by students classified as victims, bullies, and bully/victims in an urban middle school. School Psychology Review, 32, 471–489.Google Scholar
  24. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Elmore, G. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2010). Adolescents’ satisfaction with school experiences: Relationships with demographics, attachment relationships, and school engagement behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 47, 525–537. doi: 10.1002/pits.20488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Espelage, D. L., & Swearer, S. M. (2010). A social-ecological model for bullying prevention and intervention: Understanding the impact of adults in the social ecology of youngsters. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective (pp. 61–72). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Estatuto da criança e do adolescente-ECA. (1990). Diário Oficial da União. Lei nº 8069, de 13 de julho de 1990. Brasília.Google Scholar
  28. Estévez, E., Inglés, C. J., Emler, N., Martínez, M., & Torregrosa, M. (2012). Análisis de la relación entre la victimización y la violencia escolar: el rol de la reputación antisocial. Psychosocial Intervention, 21(1), 53–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Félix, E. D., Del Rey, R., & Ortega, R. (2011). Prevalencia y aspectos diferenciales relativos al género del fenómeno bullying en países pobres. Psicothema, 4(23), 624–629.Google Scholar
  30. Field, A. (2000). Discovering statistics using SPSS for Windows. Advanced techniques for the beginner. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  31. Fiorelli, J. A., & Russ, S. W. (2012). Pretend play, coping and subjective well-being in children. A follow-up study. American Journal of Play, 5(1), 81–103.Google Scholar
  32. Fitzpatrick, S., & Bussey, K. (2011). The development of the social bullying involvement scales. Aggressive Behavior, 37(2), 177–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Flaspohler, P. D., Elfstrom, J. L., Vanderzee, K. L., & Sink, H. E. (2009). Stand by me: The effects of peer and teacher support in mitigating the impact of bullying on quality of life. Psychology in the Schools, 46(7), 636–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Freire, P. (1976). Educação como prática de liberdade (6th ed.). Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra.Google Scholar
  35. Freire, P. (1987). Pedagogia do Oprimido (17th ed.). Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra.Google Scholar
  36. Garay, R. M., Ávila, M. E., & Mártinez, B. (2013). Violencia escolar: Un análisis desde los diferentes contextos de interacción. Psychosocial Intervention, 22, 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gonçalves, T., & Gutiérrez, M. (2013). Activos para el desarrollo, ajuste escolar y bienestar subjetivo de los adolescentes. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 13(3), 339–355. Recuperado de http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=56028282006.
  38. Guhn, M., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Gadermann, A. M., Hymel, S., & Hertzman, C. (2013). A population study of victimization, relationships, and well-being in middle childhood. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 1529–1541. doi: 10.1007/s10902-012-9393-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Holt, M. K., & Espelage, D. L. (2007). Perceived social support among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 984–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ikiza, F. E., & Cakar, F. S. (2010). Perceived social support and self-esteem in adolescence. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 2338–2342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística- IBGE. (2009). Pesquisa nacional de saúde do escolar. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/pense/default.shtm Accessed 4 Feb 2014.
  42. Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada—IPEA. (2012). Desafios do desenvolvimento. A revista mensal de informações e debates do IPEA. Violência- os custos da violência, 74, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. http://www.ipea.gov.br/desafios/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1 160:reportagens-materias&Itemid = 39 Accessed 5 Feb 2014.
  43. International Society for Children Indicators. (2012). Children’s worlds project. International Survey of children’s well-being. UNICEF: Word vision. http://childrensworlds.org Accessed 10 Mar 2014.
  44. Jiménez, T. I., Estévez, E., & Murgui, S. (2014). Ambiente comunitario y actitud hacia la autoridad: relaciones con la calidad de las relaciones familiares y con la agresión hacia los iguales en adolescentes. Anales de psicología, 30(3), 1086–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jiménez, T. I., & Henri, L. (2012). La Violencia Escolar entre Iguales en Alumnos Populares y Rechazados. Psychosocial Intervention, 21(1), 77–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kaiser, H. F. (1958). The varimax criterion for analytic rotation in factor analysis. Psychometrika, 23, 187–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kapıkıran, S. (2013). Loneliness and life satisfaction in Turkish early adolescents: The mediating role of self- esteem and social support. Social Indicators Research, 111, 617–632. doi: 10.1007/s11205-012-0024-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kumpulainen, K. (2008). Psychiatric conditions associated with bullying. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20(2), 121–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lee, B., & Yoo, Ms. (2015). Family, school, and community correlates of children’s subjective well-being: An international comparative study. Child Indicators Research, 8, 151–175. doi: 10.1007/s12187-014-9285-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Leme, V. B. R., Del Prette, Z. A. P., & Coimbra, S. (2015). Social skills, social support and well-being in adolescents of different family configurations. Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto, Brasil), 25(60), 9–17. doi: 10.1590/1982-43272560201503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Martínez, B., Moreno, D., Amador, L. V., & Orford, J. (2011). School victimization among adolescents. An analysis from an ecological perspective. Psychosocial Intervention, 2(20), 149–160.Google Scholar
  52. Martínez, B., Murgui, S., Musitu, G., & Monreal, M. C. (2008). El rol del apoyo parental, las actitudes hacia la escuela y la autoestima en la violencia escolar en adolescentes. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 8(3), 679–692.Google Scholar
  53. Minayo, M. C. S. (2006). Violência e Saúde. Rio de Janeiro: Fio Cruz.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Moore, P. M., Huebner, E. S., & Hills, J. K. (2012). Electronic bullying and victimization and life satisfaction in middle school students. Social Indicators Research, 107, 429–447. doi: 10.1007/s11205-011-9856-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Morán, C. (2013). El acoso escolar y su relación con el apoyo de padres y amigos. International Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology, 1(1), 433–440.Google Scholar
  56. Navarro, R., Ruiz-Oliva, R., Larrañaga, E., & Yubero, S. (2015). The impact of cyberbullying and social bullying on optimism, global and school-related happiness and life satisfaction among 10–12-year-old schoolchildren. Applied Research Quality Life, 10, 15–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Neri, M., Melo, L., Sacramento, S., & Lipkin, P. (2012). Pobreza, Igualdad de Oportunidades e Innovaciones de Política Social em Brasil. In Jacob, O., et al. (Ed.). Pobreza, desigualdad de oportunidades y políticas públicas en América Latina. Rio de Janeiro: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. http://www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_32590-1522-4-30.pdf. Accessed 2 Dec 2014.
  58. Olweus, D. (1993a). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  59. Olweus, D. (1993b). Victimization by peers: Antecedents and long-term outcomes. In K. H. Rubin & J. B. Asendorpf (Eds.), Social withdrawal, inhibition and shyness in childhood (pp. 315–341). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  60. Olweus, D. (2006). El acoso escolar. Una revisión general. In A. Serrano (Ed.), Acoso y violencia en la escuela. Como detectar, prevenir y resolver el bullying. Barcelona: Editorial Ariel, S. A.Google Scholar
  61. Orpinas, P., & Frankowski, R. (2001). The aggression scale: A self-report measure of aggressive behavior for young adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 21(1), 50–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pastor, Y., Quiles, Y., & Pamies, L. (2012). Apoyo social en la adolescencia: adaptación y propiedades psicométricas del “Social Support Scale for Children” de Harter (1985). Revista de Psicología Social, 27(1), 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Povedano, A., Estévez, E., Martínez, B., & Monreal, M.-C. (2012). Un perfil psicosocial de adolescents agresores y víctimas en la escuela: análisis de las diferencias de género. Revista de Psicología Social, 21(2), 169–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Povedano, A., Hendry, L., Ramos, M., & Varel, R. (2011). Victimización Escolar: Clima Familiar, Autoestima y Satisfacción con la Vida desde una Perspectiva de Género. Psychosocial Intervention, 20(1), 5–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ronen, T., Hamama, L., Rosenbaum, M., & Mishely-Yarlap, A. (2014). Subjective well-being in adolescence: The role of self-control, social support, age, gender, and familial crisis. Journal of Happiness Studies. doi: 10.1007/s10902-014-9585-5.Google Scholar
  66. Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2010). Relationship between multiple sources of perceived social support and psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence: Comparisons across gender. Journal Youth Adolescence, 39, 47–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. San-Martín, J. L., & Barra, E. (2013). Autoestima, Apoyo Social y Satisfacción Vital en Adolescentes. Terapia psicológica, 3(31), 287–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sarriera, J. C., Abs, D., Casas, F., & Bedin, L. M. (2012). Relations between media, perceived social support and personal well-being in adolescence. Journal Social Indicators Research, 106(3), 545–561. doi: 10.1007/s11205-011-9821-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schütz, F., Sarriera, J., Bedin, L., & Montserrat, C. (2015). Subjective well-being of children in residential care: Comparison between children in institutional care and children living with their families. Psicoperspectivas, 14(1), 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Swearer, S., Espelage, D. L., Vaillancourt, T., & Hymel, S. (2010). What can be done about school bullying? Linking research to educational practice. Educational Researcher, 39, 38–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tiliouine, H. (2015). School bullying victimisation and subjective well-being in Algeria. Child Indicators Research, 8, 133–150. doi: 10.1007/s12187-014-9286-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Vaux, A., Phillips, J., Holly, L., Thomson, B., Williams, D., & Stewart, D. (1986). The social support appraisals scale: Studies of reliability and validity. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14(2), 195–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Waiselfisz, J. (2012). Mapa da violência. Crianças e adolescentes do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Centro de Estudos Latinos-Americanos. http://www.mapadaviolencia.org.br/pdf2012/MapaViolencia2012_Criancas_e_Adolescentes.pdf. Accessed 6 Feb 2014.
  74. World Health Organization—OMS. (2002). World report on violence and health. (pp. 1–56). Geneva. http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 5 Feb 2014.
  75. World Health Organization—OMS. (2009). Social determinants of health: The solid facts (2nd ed.). Geneva. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/98438/e81384.pdf. Accessed 19 Dec 2015.
  76. World Health Organization—WHO. (2012). Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC).International Report from the 2009/2010 survey. In Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/163857/Social-determinants-of-health-and-well-being-among-young-people.pdf. Accessed 3 Feb 2014.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefania C. Alcantara
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mònica González-Carrasco
    • 1
  • Carme Montserrat
    • 1
  • Ferran Viñas
    • 1
  • Ferran Casas
    • 1
  • Desirée P. Abreu
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Education and Psychology, Quality of Life Research InstituteUniversity of GironaGironaSpain
  2. 2.CAPES Foundation, Brazilian Ministry of EducationBrasíliaBrazil

Personalised recommendations