Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp 1641–1657 | Cite as

The Mediating Roles of Work–Family Conflict and Facilitation in the Relations Between Leisure Experience and Job/Life Satisfaction Among Employees in Shanghai Banking Industry

  • Shichang Deng
  • Jun GaoEmail author
Research Paper


In this study, we explore whether the relationship between leisure experience and job/life satisfaction is mediated by work–family conflict and facilitation, and how these effect coefficients varied among different demographic groups of gender, marital status as well as parental status. With the survey data from 1706 employees in the Shanghai banking industry, we found work–family conflict and facilitation acted as mediators between leisure experience and job/life satisfaction. In all demographic groups, work–family conflict was negatively related with leisure experience and job/life satisfaction. Conversely, work–family facilitation was positively related with leisure experience and job/life satisfaction. Moreover, we found (1) compared with the case for males, the negative effect coefficient of work–family conflict on job satisfaction was significantly higher in female samples. (2) The positive effect coefficients of leisure experience on work–family facilitation was higher for married couples than for unmarried employees. (3) For employees who had children, the negative effect coefficient of leisure experience on work–family conflict as well as the positive effect coefficient of leisure experience on work–family facilitation were significantly higher than for employees who had no children. The results of this study suggest that employees in the banking industry would experience a lower level of work–family conflict and better maintain work–family facilitation by engaging in leisure pursuits with their family. The limitations of this study were discussed as well.


Leisure experience Work–family conflict Work–family facilitation Job satisfaction Life satisfaction 


  1. Arbuckle, J. (2012). Amos™ 21 user’s guide. Chicago, IL: IBM Corp.Google Scholar
  2. Azevedo, M. R., Araújo, C. L. P., Reichert, F. F., Siqueira, F. V., da Silva, M. C., & Hallal, P. C. (2007). Gender differences in leisure-time physical activity. International Journal of Public Health, 52(1), 8–15. doi: 10.1007/s00038-006-5062-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Babin, B. J., & Boles, J. S. (1998). Employee behavior in a service environment: A model and test of potential differences between men and women. Journal of Marketing, 62(2), 77. doi: 10.2307/1252162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baltes, B. B., Clark, M. A., & Chakrabarti, M. (2012). Work–life balance: The roles of work–family conflict and work–family facilitation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195335446.013.0016.Google Scholar
  5. Brady, B. R., Vodanovich, S. J., & Rotunda, R. (2008). The impact of workaholism on work–family conflict, job satisfaction, and perception of leisure activities. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 11(2), 241–263. doi: 10.1080/10887150802371781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen, L. H., Ye, Y.-C., Chen, M.-Y., & Tung, I.-W. (2010). Alegría! flow in leisure and life satisfaction: The mediating role of event satisfaction using data from an acrobatics show. Social Indicators Research, 99(2), 301–313. doi: 10.1007/s11205-010-9581-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheung, F. Y.-L., & Tang, C. S.-K. (2009). Quality of work life as a mediator between emotional labor and work family interference. Journal of Business and Psychology, 24(3), 245–255. doi: 10.1007/s10869-009-9103-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chin-Tsai, K. (2013). Leisure involvement, leisure benefits, quality of life, and job satisfaction. International Review of Management and Business Research, 2(2), 421–428.Google Scholar
  9. Cinamon, R. G., & Rich, Y. (2002). Gender differences in the importance of work and family roles: Implications for work–family conflict. Sex Roles, 47(11/12), 531–541. doi: 10.1023/A:1022021804846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark, S. C. (2000). Work/Family border theory: A new theory of work/family balance. Human Relations, 53(6), 747–770. doi: 10.1177/0018726700536001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dixon, M. A., & Sagas, M. (2007). The relationship between organizational support, work–family conflict, and the job-life satisfaction of university coaches. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 78(3), 236–247. doi: 10.1080/02701367.2007.10599421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eriksson, L., Rice, J. M., & Goodin, R. E. (2006). Temporal aspects of life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 80(3), 511–533. doi: 10.1007/s11205-006-0005-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ernst Kossek, E., & Ozeki, C. (1998). work–family conflict, policies, and the job-life satisfaction relationship: A review and directions for organizational behavior-human resources research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(2), 139–149. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.83.2.139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grandey, A., Cordeiro, B., & Crouter, A. (2005). A longitudinal and multi-source test of the work–family conflict and job satisfaction relationship. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78(3), 305–323. doi: 10.1348/096317905X26769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Granleese, J. (2004). Occupational pressures in banking: Gender differences. Women in Management Review, 19(4), 219–226. doi: 10.1108/09649420410541290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grigsby, J. S. (1989). Adult children in the parental household: Who benefits? Lifestyles Family and Economic Issues, 10(4), 293–309. doi: 10.1007/BF00986864.Google Scholar
  18. Grzywacz, J. G., & Marks, N. F. (2000). Reconceptualizing the work–family interface: An ecological perspective on the correlates of positive and negative spillover between work and family. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 111–126. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.5.1.111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Harlow, L. L., Mulaik, S. A., & Steiger, J. H. (2013). What if there were no significance tests?. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  20. Havighurst, R. J., & Feigenbaum, K. (1959). Leisure and life-style. American Journal of Sociology, 64(4), 396–404. doi: 10.2307/2773953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hills, P., Argyle, M., & Reeves, R. (2000). Individual differences in leisure satisfactions: An investigation of four theories of leisure motivation. Personality and Individual Differences, 28(4), 763–779. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00137-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kando, T. M., & Summers, W. C. (1971). The impact of work on leisure: Toward a paradigm and research strategy. The Pacific Sociological Review, 14(3), 310–327. doi: 10.2307/1388645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Logan, J. R., Bian, F., & Bian, Y. (1998). Tradition and change in the urban chinese family: The case of living arrangements. Social Forces, 76(3), 851. doi: 10.2307/3005696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research,. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr3901_4.Google Scholar
  26. Marsh, H. W., Hau, K.-T., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 11(3), 320–341. doi: 10.1207/s15328007sem1103_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Maxwell, S. E., Cole, D. A., & Mitchell, M. A. (2011). Bias in cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal mediation: Partial and complete mediation under an autoregressive model. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 46(5), 816–841. doi: 10.1080/00273171.2011.606716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McNall, L. A., Masuda, A. D., & Nicklin, J. M. (2009). Flexible work arrangements, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions: The mediating role of work-to-family enrichment. The Journal of Psychology, 144(1), 61–81. doi: 10.1080/00223980903356073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Neal, J. D., Sirgy, M. J., & Uysal, M. (1999). The role of satisfaction with leisure travel/tourism services and experience in satisfaction with leisure life and overall life. Journal of Business Research, 44(3), 153–163. doi: 10.1016/S0148-2963(97)00197-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nomaguchi, K. M. (2012). Marital status, gender, and home-to-job conflict among employed parents. Journal of Family Issues, 33(3), 271–294. doi: 10.1177/0192513X11415613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pearson, Q. M. (2008). Role overload, job satisfaction, leisure satisfaction, and psychological health among employed women. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(1), 57–63. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2008.tb00626.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Perrewé, P. L., Hochwarter, W. A., & Kiewitz, C. (1999). Value attainment: An explanation for the negative effects of work–family conflict on job and life satisfaction. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4(4), 318–326. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.4.4.318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rashid, W. E. W., Nordin, M. S., Omar, A., & Ismail, I. (2011). Social support, work–family enrichment and life satisfaction among married nurses in health service. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity,. doi: 10.7763/IJSSH.2011.V1.26.Google Scholar
  34. Sirgy, M. J. (Ed.). (2012). Leisure well-being. In The psychology of quality of life (Vol. 50, pp. 401–416). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-4405-9.
  35. Sonnentag, S., Arbeus, H., Mahn, C., & Fritz, C. (2014). Exhaustion and lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time: Moderator effects of time pressure and leisure experiences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(2), 206–216. doi: 10.1037/a0035760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Spector, P. E., Allen, T. D., Poelmans, S. A. Y., Lapierre, L. M., Cooper, C. L., et al. (2007). Cross-national differences in relationships of work demands, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions with work–family conflict. Personnel Psychology, 60(4), 805–835. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00092.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Staines, G. (1980). Spillover versus compensation: A review of the literature on the relationship between work and nonwork. Human Relations, 33(2), 111–129. doi: 10.1177/001872678003300203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Strazdins, L., Clements, M. S., Korda, R. J., Broom, D. H., & D’Souza, R. M. (2006). Unsociable work? Nonstandard work schedules, family relationships, and children’s well-being. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(2), 394–410. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00260.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tang, S., Siu, O., & Cheung, F. (2014). A study of work–family enrichment among chinese employees: The mediating role between work support and job satisfaction. Applied Psychology, 63(1), 130–150. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2012.00519.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Unger, L. S. (2009). The effect of situational variables on the subjective leisure experience. Leisure Sciences, 6(3), 291–312. doi: 10.1080/01490408409513037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Van Hooff, M. L. M., Geurts, S. A. E., Beckers, D. G. J., & Kompier, M. A. J. (2011). Daily recovery from work: The role of activities, effort and pleasure. Work & Stress, 25(1), 55–74. doi: 10.1080/02678373.2011.570941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Van Steenbergen, E. F., Ellemers, N., & Mooijaart, A. (2007). How work and family can facilitate each other: Distinct types of work–family facilitation and outcomes for women and men. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(3), 279–300. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.12.3.279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang, F., DesMeules, M., Luo, W., Dai, S., Lagace, C., & Morrison, H. (2011). Leisure-time physical activity and marital status in relation to depression between men and women: A prospective study. Health Psychology, 30(2), 204–211. doi: 10.1037/a0022434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wentling, R. M. (1998). Work and family issues: Their impact on women’s career development. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 1998(80), 15–24. doi: 10.1002/ace.8002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ylikännö, M. (2010). Employees’ satisfaction with the balance between work and leisure in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark-time use perspective. Research on Finnish Society, 3, 43–52.Google Scholar
  46. Zeng, Y., & Yan, L. (2013). Reliability and validity of Chinese version of work–family balance scale (in Chinese). Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21(006), 988–991.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Management SchoolShanghai University of International Business and EconomicsShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyFudan UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations