Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 809–826 | Cite as

Fruit and Vegetable Intake Predicts Positive Affect

  • Rebecca M. WarnerEmail author
  • Kala Frye
  • Jesse Stabile Morrell
  • Gale Carey
Research Paper


Prior research suggests that fruit and vegetable intake predicts psychological well-being (WB) when controlled for demographic variables such as age, income and education. Using multiple-item measures and including additional diet and health variables as covariates, the current study assessed self-reported well-being in the past week and daily fruit and vegetable consumption over the past 4 weeks for 1270 university students. Mean positive affect increased linearly as a function of number of daily servings of fruits and vegetables; the pattern of this relationship did not differ significantly for males and females. This association remained statistically significant after controlling for demographic variables (age, sex, and parent education levels); other diet variables (consumption of sugar containing beverages, coffee or tea, and fat); and other health behaviors (exercise, sleep quality and smoking). Life satisfaction and negative affect were not significantly related to fruit and vegetable consumption. Analysis of single-item measures similar to those used in past large scale surveys yielded similar results. Possible reasons for the association of fruits and vegetable consumption with well-being are discussed.


Subjective well-being Positive affect Diet Fruit Vegetables 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rebecca M. Warner
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kala Frye
    • 1
  • Jesse Stabile Morrell
    • 2
  • Gale Carey
    • 2
  1. 1.University of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical SciencesUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA

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