Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 1401–1421 | Cite as

Does Infant Happiness Forecast Adult Life Satisfaction? Examining Subjective Well-Being in the First Quarter Century of Life

  • John K. CoffeyEmail author
  • Michael T. Warren
  • Allen W. Gottfried
Research Paper


Few empirical studies have focused on young children’s happiness (high positive affect and low negative affect) and specifically whether it is related to adult well-being. Adult well-being indices (e.g., life satisfaction, workplace hope, and optimism) may have developmental roots in early affect. In the 28-year Fullerton Longitudinal Study (N = 129) we examined positive affect and negative affect as independent constructs during infancy (parent report) and adolescence (self-report) to determine their relationship to global adult life satisfaction (self-report). In addition, we tested the generalizability of the effects of positive and negative affect in relation to domain-specific adult well-being constructs (i.e., workplace hope and optimism), which hold utility for concurrent and prospective well-being. Structural equation modeling revealed that positive affect during infancy and adolescence each uniquely predicted adult life satisfaction. In a separate model for a subsample of employed adults, infant positive affect showed significant positive associations with workplace hope and optimism. Neither infant nor adolescent negative affect predicted any adult well-being outcomes. Our results highlight the need for more developmental studies examining the relationship between children’s positive and negative affect and long-term well-being.


Happiness Positive affect Negative affect Life satisfaction Development Hope Optimism 



Portions of this research were supported by grants from the Spencer Foundation, Thrasher Research Fund, California State University, Fullerton and Northridge, and Kravis Leadership Institute. Gratitude is extended to the participants and families of the Fullerton Longitudinal Study, and to Katie Nelson, Laura Wray-Lake, Jessica Borelli, Pam Oliver, Adele Gottfried, Diana Guerin, Ronald Riggio, Rebecca Reichard, Jeanne Nakamura and Binghuang A. Wang, for their assistance on this manuscript.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • John K. Coffey
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael T. Warren
    • 1
  • Allen W. Gottfried
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Behavioral and Organizational SciencesClaremont Graduate UniversityClaremontUSA
  2. 2.Fullerton Longitudinal StudyFullertonUSA

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