Fragility of Happiness Beliefs Across 15 National Groups
- 877 Downloads
The belief that happiness is fragile—that it is fleeting and may easily turn into less favourable states—is common across individuals and cultures. However, not much is known about this belief domain and its structure and correlates. In the present study, we use multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and multilevel modelling to investigate the measurement invariance, cross-level isomorphism, predictive validity, and nomological network of the fragility of happiness scale across 15 nations. The results show that this scale has good statistical properties at both individual and cultural levels, and is associated with relevant psycho-social concepts in expected directions. The importance of the results, limitations, and potential directions for future research are discussed.
KeywordsFragility of happiness Happiness Well-being Culture Fear of happiness
- Adamopoulos, J. (2008). On the entanglement of culture and individual behavior. In F. van de Vijver, D. A. van Hermert, & Y. H. Poortinga (Eds.), Multilevel analysis of individuals and cultures (pp. 27–62). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Belliotti, R. A. (2004). Happiness is overrated. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
- Bryk, A. S., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1992). Hierarchical linear models in social and behavioral research: Applications and data analysis methods (1st ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Central Intelligence Agency. (2012). World factbook. Langley, VA: Author.Google Scholar
- Dambrun, M., Ricard, M., Després, G., Drelon, E., Gibelin, E., Gibelin, M. et al. (2012). Measuring happiness: From fluctuating happiness to authentic-durable happiness. Frontiers in Psychology, 3(16), 1–11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00016.
- Davidov, E., Schmidt, P., & Schwartz, S. H. (2008). Bringing values back. In Public Opinion Quarterly, 72(3), 420–445.Google Scholar
- De Beuckelaer, A., & Swinnen, G. (2011). Biased latent variable mean comparisons due to measurement non-invariance: A simulation study. In E. Davidov, P. Schmidt, & J. Billiet (Eds.), Methods and applications in cross-cultural analysis (pp. 117–148). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
- Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Ryan, K. (2013). Universal and cultural differences in the causes and structure of “happiness”—a multilevel review. In C. Keyes (Ed.), Mental well-being: International contributions to the study of positive mental health (pp. 153–176). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- EVS. (2011). European Values Study 1981–2008, longitudinal data file. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne, Germany, ZA4804 Data File Version 2.0.0 (2011-12-30).Google Scholar
- Fontaine, J. R. (2008). Traditional and multilevel approaches in cross-cultural research: An integration of methodological frameworks. In F. J. R. Van de Vijver, D. A. Van Hemert, & Y. H. Poortinga (Eds.), Individuals and cultures in multilevel analysis (pp. 65–92). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Hamamura, T., & Heine, S. J. (2008). Approach and avoidance motivations across cultures. In A. J. Elliot (Ed.), Handbook of approach and avoidance motivations (pp. 557–570). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Heine, S. J. (2007). Culture and motivation: What motivates people to act in the ways that they do? In S. Kitayama & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of cultural psychology (pp. 714–734). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Hofstede, G., & Hofstede, G. J. (2005). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Izutsu, T. (1971). The concept and reality of existence. Tokyo: Keio Institute of Cultural and Linguistic Studies.Google Scholar
- Joshanloo, M. (2013a). Conceptions of happiness across cultures. Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.Google Scholar
- Joshanloo, M. & Weijers, D. (2014). Aversion to happiness across cultures: A review of where and why people are averse to happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies. doi: 10.1007/s10902-013-9489-9.
- Kwee, M. G. (2012). Relational Buddhism: A psychological quest for meaning and sustainable happiness. In P. T. P. Wong (Ed.), The human quest for meaning: Theories, research, and applications (pp. 249–273). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Legatum Institute. (2012). The 2012 Legatum Prosperity Index: Methodology and technical appendix. Retrieved from: http://www.prosperity.com/.
- Leung, K., & Bond, M. H. (2008). Psycho-logic and eco-logic: Insights from social axiom dimensions. In F. van de Vijver, D. van Hemert, & Y. P. Poortinga (Eds.), Individuals and cultures in multilevel analysis (pp. 197–219). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Lvina, E., Johns, G., Treadway, D. C., Blickle, G., Liu, Y. L., Liu, J., et al. (2012). Measure invariance of the Political Skill Inventory (PSI) across five cultures. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 12, 171–191.Google Scholar
- Lyubomirsky, S. (2000). In the pursuit of happiness: Comparing the United States and Russia. In Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Experimental Psychology, Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
- McMahon, D. M. (2006). Happiness: A history. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.Google Scholar
- McMahon, D. M. (2008). The pursuit of happiness in history. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 80–93). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Nezlek, J. B. (2011). Multilevel modeling for social and personality psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Ōmura, E. (2006). Happiness and unhappiness: A clinical sociological approach. In K. Kosaka (Ed.), A sociology of happiness: Japanese perspectives (pp. 146–190). Melbourne: Trans Pacific Press.Google Scholar
- Peng, K., Spencer-Rodgers, J., & Nian, Z. (2006). Naïve dialecticism and the Tao of Chinese thought indigenous and cultural psychology. In U. Kim, K.-S. Yang, & K.- K. Hwang (Eds.), Indigenous and cultural psychology: Understanding people in context (pp. 247–262). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Robitschek, C. (1998). Personal growth initiative: The construct and its measure. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 30, 183–198.Google Scholar
- Schimmack, U. (2008). The structure of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective wellbeing (pp. 97–123). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Schwartz, S. H. (2009). Culture matters: National value cultures, sources and consequences. In C.-Y. Chiu, Y. Y. Hong, S. Shavitt, & R. S. Wyer Jr (Eds.), Understanding culture: Theory, research and application (pp. 127–150). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Selig, J. P., Card, N. A., & Little, T. D. (2008). Latent variable structural equation modeling in cross- cultural research: Multigroup and multilevel approaches. In F. J. R. Van de Vijver, D. A. Van Hemert, & Y. H. Poortinga (Eds.), Multilevel analysis of individuals and cultures (pp. 93–119). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group/Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Steinmetz, H. (2011). Estimation and comparison of latent means across cultures. In E. Davidov, P. Schmidt, & J. Billiet (Eds.), Cross-cultural analysis: Methods and applications (pp. 85–116). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Tov, W., & Diener, E. (2008). The well-being of nations: Linking together trust, cooperation, and democracy. In B. A. Sullivan, M. Snyder, & J. L. Sullivan (Eds.), Cooperation: The political psychology of effective human interaction (pp. 323–342). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
- UNDP. (2012). United Nations development Program: Human development reports. Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en.
- Veenhoven, R., (2013). World Database of Happiness, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Retrieved from: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl.
- WVS (2009). World Value Survey 1981–2008 official aggregate v.20090902, 2009. World Values Survey Association (www.worldvaluessurvey.org). Aggregate File Producer: ASEP/JDS Data Archive, Madrid, Spain.