Hope as a Resource for Self-Directed Career Management: Investigating Mediating Effects on Proactive Career Behaviors and Life and Job Satisfaction
- 1.6k Downloads
Hope is increasingly recognized as an important psychological resource for career development, yet the empirical research on its functioning in this domain is sparse. This paper describes an investigation of how dispositional hope is related to career decidedness, career planning, and career self-efficacy beliefs and whether these more proximal career attitudes mediate the effects of hope on proactive career behaviors, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. This investigation was conducted using two independent samples of university students (N = 1,334) and working professionals (N = 233). The results showed that in both samples, hope was significantly related but empirically distinct from career variables. In both samples, hope had a direct effect on proactive career behaviors, partially mediated by more career planning. Hope had significant direct and indirect effects on life satisfaction among students, mediated by the three career development attitudes. Although hope was significantly correlated with job satisfaction among employees, no direct effect of hope was found in the mediation model, but an indirect effect through career decidedness was found. The results suggest that hope is an important resource for proactive career development at different career stages and that the positive relation of hope to life and job satisfaction can partially be attributed to the positive relation between hope and favorable career development attitudes.
KeywordsHope Career development Proactivity Life satisfaction Job satisfaction
Part of this research was supported by an individual research grant awarded to Andreas Hirschi by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), GZ: HI 1530/2-1. The funding source had no involvement in study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data, in the writing of the report, or in the decision to submit the article for publication.
- Bandura, A. (2006). Toward a psychology of human agency. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(2), 164–180. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00011.x.
- Brown, S. D., Lamp, K., Telander, K. J., & Hacker, J. (2013). Career development as prevention: Toward a social cognitive model of vocational hope. In E. M. Vera (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of prevention in counseling psychology (pp. 374–392). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Cronbach, L. J. (1984). Essentials of psychological testing (4th ed.). New York, NY: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
- Hirschi, A., Freund, P. A., & Herrmann, A. (in press). The career engagement scale: Development and validation of a measure for proactive career behaviors. Journal of Career Assessment. doi: 10.1177/1069072713514813.
- Holland, J. L., Daiger, D. C., & Power, P. G. (1980). My vocational situation. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
- Jörin Fux, S. (2006). Persönlichkeit und Berufstätigkeit [Personality and Work]. Göttingen: Cuviller Verlag.Google Scholar
- Jörin, S., Stoll, F., Bergmann, C., & Eder, D. (2004). Explorix ® -das Werkzeug zur Berufswahl und Laufbahnplanung [Explorix—the tool for career choice and career planning]. Berne: Hans Huber.Google Scholar
- Krause, S. (2002). Differentialdiagnostische Untersuchungen zur Revision einer deutschen Übersetzung der HOPE-Skala von R.Snyder [Differential diagnostic investigation of a revision of a German language translation of the HOPE-scale by R.Snyder]. Leipzig: University of Leipzig.Google Scholar
- LaRIOS (2013). International conference: Life design and career counseling: Building hope and resilience. Padova, Italy.Google Scholar
- Lent, R. W., Singley, D., Sheu, H.-B., Gainor, K. A., Brenner, B. R., Treistman, D., et al. (2005). Social cognitive predictors of domain and life satisfaction: Exploring the theoretical precursors of subjective well-being. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 429–442. doi: 10.1037/0022-018.104.22.1689.Google Scholar
- Magaletta, P. R., & Oliver, J. M. (1999). The hope construct, will, and ways: Their relations with self-efficacy, optimism, and general well-being. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(5), 539–551. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-4679(199905)55:5<539:aid-jclp2>3.0.co;2-g.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus user’s guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Authors.Google Scholar
- National Career Development Association (2013).Annual conference: Celebrating 100 years of career development: Creating hope, social justice and legacy. Boston, MA.Google Scholar
- Snyder, C., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., et al. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570–585. doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1240.Google Scholar
- Super, D. E., Savickas, M. L., & Super, C. M. (1996). The life-span, life-space approach to careers. In D. Brown & L. Brooks (Eds.), Career choice and development. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Wayne, S. J., Liden, R. C., Kraimer, M. L., & Graf, I. K. (1999). The role of human capital, motivation and supervisor sponsorship in predicting career success. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20(5), 577–595. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1099-1379(199909)20:5<577:aid-job958>3.0.co;2-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zikic, J., & Klehe, U.-C. (2006). Job loss as a blessing in disguise: The role of career exploration and career planning in predicting reemployment quality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(3), 391–409. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2006.05.007.