Effects of Self-Reported Wisdom on Happiness: Not Much More Than Emotional Intelligence?
- 1.1k Downloads
Wisdom and emotional intelligence are increasingly popular topics among happiness scholars. Despite their conceptual overlap, no empirical research has examined their interrelations and incremental predictive validities. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate associations between multidimensional conceptualizations of self-reported wisdom (Ardelt in Res Aging 25(3):275–324, 2003, 2004) and emotional intelligence (Davies et al. in J Pers Soc Psychol 75:989–1015, 1998) and (b) to examine the joint effects of self-reported wisdom and emotional intelligence on dimensions of happiness (life satisfaction as well as positive and negative affect). Data were provided by two samples: 175 university students and 400 online workers. Correlations between a composite wisdom score, a composite emotional intelligence score, and happiness facets were positive and moderate in size. Regression analyses showed that the effects of composite wisdom on life satisfaction and positive affect (but not negative affect) became weaker and non-significant when composite emotional intelligence was controlled. Additional analyses including three dimensions of the self-reported wisdom (cognitive, reflective, and affective wisdom) and four dimensions of emotional intelligence (self- and others-emotions appraisal, use and regulation of emotion) revealed a more differentiated pattern of results. Implications for future research on wisdom and happiness are discussed.
KeywordsWisdom Emotional intelligence Life satisfaction Positive affect Negative affect
- Ardelt, M. (2004). Wisdom as expert knowledge system: A critical review of a contemporary operationalization of an ancient concept. Human Development, 47(5), 257–285.Google Scholar
- Clayton, V. P., & Birren, J. E. (1980). The development of wisdom across the life-span: A reexamination of an ancient topic. In P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 3, pp. 103–135). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Erikson, E. H., Erikson, J. M., & Kivnick, H. Q. (1989). Vital involvement in old age. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
- Etezadi, S., & Pushkar, D. (2012). Why are wise people happier? An explanatory model of wisdom and emotional well-being in older adults. Journal of Happiness Studies. doi: 10.1007/s10902-012-9362-2.
- Karelitz, T. M., Jarvin, L., & Sternberg, R. J. (2010). The meaning of wisdom and its development throughout life. In R. M. Lerner & W. F. Overton (Eds.), The handbook of life-span development (Vol. 1: Cognition, Biology, and Methods). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Koydemir, S., Şimşek, Ö. F., Schütz, A., & Tipdandjan, A. (2011). Differences in how trait emotional intelligence predicts life satisfaction: The role of affect balance versus social support in India and Germany. Journal of Happiness Studies. doi: 10.1007/s10902-011-9315-1.
- Mackinnon, A., Jorm, A. F., Christensen, H., Korten, A. E., Jacomb, P. A., & Rodgers, B. (1999). A short form of the positive and negative affect schedule: Evaluation of factorial validity and invariance across demographic variables in a community sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 405–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mason, W., & Suri, S. (2011). Conducting behavioral research on Amazon’s mechanical turk. Behavior Research Methods, 44(1), 1–23.Google Scholar
- Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Taylor, M., Bates, G., & Webster, J. D. (2011). Comparing the psychometric properties of two measures of wisdom: Predicting forgiveness and psychological well-being with the self-assessed wisdom scale (SAWS) and the three-dimensional wisdom scale (3W-WS). Experimental Aging Research, 37, 129–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar