Advertisement

Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 1639–1655 | Cite as

Post-migration Growth Scale for Chinese International Students: Development and Validation

  • Jia-Yan Pan
  • Daniel Fu Keung Wong
  • Shengquan Ye
Research Paper

Abstract

There has been a significant paradigm shift in recent acculturation research from a psychopathological perspective to a resilience framework. However, one indicator of positive adaptation outcomes in acculturation—measurement of personal growth in migration—is lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a Post-migration Growth Scale (PMGS) for Chinese international students. A 14-item scale was developed through in-depth interviews, item analysis and factor analysis. The scale was initially validated in a sample of 400 mainland Chinese students studying in Hong Kong. Exploratory factor analysis suggested two factors (interpersonal growth and intrapersonal growth), which were cross-validated in an independent sample of Chinese international students in Australia from mainland China (n = 154) by confirmatory factor analysis. The PMGS showed satisfactory internal consistency reliability and concurrent validity. The PMGS can thus be a reliable and valid instrument to measure Chinese international students’ personal growth from overseas study experiences. Limitations were discussed and implications were suggested.

Keywords

Post-migration growth Resilience Scale development Scale validation Chinese International students 

References

  1. Aldwin, C. M., & Levenson, M. R. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: A developmental perspective. Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 19–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrade, M. S. (2006). International student persistence: Integration or cultural integrity? Journal of college Student Relations, 8(1), 57–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ang, R. P., & Huan, V. S. (2006). Academic expectation stress inventory: Development, factor analysis, reliability, and validity. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(3), 522–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bennett, H., & Rigby, C. (1997). The relationship between tenure, stress and coping strategies of South African immigrants to New Zealand. South African Journal of Psychology, 27(3), 160–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bentler, P. M. (1995). EQS structural equations program manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software.Google Scholar
  7. Brennan, J. (2001). Adjustment to cancer—Coping or personal transition? Psycho-Oncology, 10, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, L. (2009). The transformative power of international sojourn: An ethnographic study of the international student experience. Annuals of Tourism Research, 36(3), 502–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, L., & Brown, J. (2009). Out of chaos, into a new identity: The transformative power of the international sojourn. Existential Analysis, 20(2), 341–361.Google Scholar
  10. Campbell, A. (2010). Developing generic skills and attributes of international students: The (ir)relevance of the Australian university experience. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 32(5), 487–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carmines, E. G., & McIver, J. P. (1981). Analyzing models with unobserved variables: Analysis of covariance structures. In G. W. Bronstedt & E. F. Borgatta (Eds.), Social measurement: Current issues. SAGE: Beverly Hills, CA.Google Scholar
  12. Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 309–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crawford, A. V., Green, S. B., Levy, R., Lo, W.-J., Scott, L., Svetina, D., et al. (2010). Evaluation of parallel analysis methods for determining the number of factors. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70(6), 885–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Curran, P. J., West, G. W., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1, 16–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davis, C. G., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Larson, J. (1998). Making sense of loss and benefiting from the experience: Two construals of meaning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 561–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Delevi, R., & Bugay, A. (2010). Understanding change in romantic relationship expectations of international female students from Turkey. Contemporary Family Therapy, 32, 257–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and application (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication.Google Scholar
  18. Diener, E., Robert, A., Emmons, R. J. L., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dimmock, C., & Leong, J. O. S. (2010). Studying overseas: Mainland Chinese students in Singapore. Compare, 40(1), 25–42.Google Scholar
  20. Felsman, J. K. (1989). Risk and resiliency in childhood: The lives of street children. In T. F. Dugan & R. Coles (Eds.), The child in our times: Studies in the development of resiliency (pp. 56–80). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  21. Frazier, P., Conlon, A., & Glaser, T. (2001). Positive and negative life changes following sexual assault. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 1048–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gangstad, B., Norman, P., & Barton, J. (2009). Cognitive processing and posttraumatic growth after stroke. Rehabilitation Psychology, 54(1), 69–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gill, S. (2007). Overseas students’ intercultural adaptation as intercultural learning: A transformative framework. Compare, 37(2), 167–183.Google Scholar
  24. Grotberg, H. E. (2003). Resilience for today: Gaining strength from adversity. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  25. Gu, Q., Schweisfurth, M., & Day, C. (2010). Learning and growing in a “foreign” context: Intercultural experiences of international students. Compare, 40(1), 7–23.Google Scholar
  26. Hamid, P. N., & Cheng, S. T. (1996). The development and validation of an index of emotional disposition and mood state: The Chinese Affect Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 56, 995–1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Helgeson, V. S., Reynolds, K. A., & Tomich, P. L. (2006). A meta-analytic review of benefit finding and growth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 797–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ho, S. M. Y., Chan, C. L. W., & Ho, R. T. H. (2004). Posttraumatic growth in Chinese cancer survivors. Psycho-Oncology, 13, 337–389.Google Scholar
  29. Hu, L.-T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ickovics, J. R., Meade, C. S., Kershaw, T. S., Milan, S., Lewis, J. S., & Ethier, K. A. (2006). Urban teens: Trauma, posttraumatic growth, and emotional distress among female adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 841–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Inkson, K., & Myers, B. (2003). “‘The big OE’”: Self-directed travel and career development career. Career Development International, 8(4), 170–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jackson, J. (2006). Ethnographic preparation for short-term study and residence in the target culture. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(1), 77–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Janoff-Bulman, R. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Three explanatory models. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 30–34.Google Scholar
  34. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (2004). LISREL 8.70. Chicago: Scientific Software.Google Scholar
  35. Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kim, Y. (1988). Communication and cross-cultural adaptation: An integrative theory. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.Google Scholar
  37. Lelorain, S., Bonnaud-Antignac, A., & Florin, A. (2010). Long term posttraumatic growth after breast cancer: Prevalence, predictors and relationships with psychological health. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 17, 14–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Levine, M. (2009). Transforming experiences: Nursing education and international immersion programs. Journal of Professional Nursing, 25(3), 156–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Levinson, D. (1986). A conception of adult development. American Psychologist, 41, 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Li, M., & Bray, M. (2007). Cross-border flows of students for higher education: Push–pull factors and motivations of mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong and Macau. Higher Education, 53, 791–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S. (2004). Positive changes following trauma and adversity: A review. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(1), 11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Longman, R. S., Cota, A. A., Holden, R. R., & Fekken, G. C. (1989). A regression equation for the parallel analysis criterion in principal components analysis: Mean and 95th percentile eigenvalues. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 24(1), 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lou, V., & Chan, C. (1998). Stress and social adaptation of immigrant adolescents from mainland China: A cultural cooperative model. In J. Chan (Ed.), Psychological adaptation of children and youth newly arrived in Hong Kong from mainland China: Research, theory and practice (pp. 145–158). Hong Kong: Aberdeen Kai-fong Welfare Association Social Service Centre.Google Scholar
  44. Luthar, S. S., & Zigler, E. (1991). Vulnerability and competence: A review of research on resilience in childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61(1), 6–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mapp, S. C., McFarland, P., & Newell, E. A. (2007). The Effect of a short-term study abroad class on students’ cross-cultural awareness. The Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 13(1), 39–51.Google Scholar
  46. Milam, J., Ritt-Olson, A., Tan, A., Unger, J., & Nezami, E. (2005). The September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks and reports of posttraumatic growth among a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents. Traumatology, 11(4), 233–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Millam, J. E. (2004). Posttraumatic growth among HIV/AIDS patients. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(11), 2353–2376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mols, F., Vingerhoets, J. J. M., Coebergh, J. W. W., & Poll-Franse, L. V. (2009). Well-being, posttraumatic growth and benefit finding in long-term breast cancer survivors. Psychology and Health, 24(5), 583–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Montuori, A., & Fahim, U. (2004). Cross-cultural encounter as an opportunity for personal growth. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 44(2), 243–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mosher, C. E., Danoff-Burg, S., & Brunker, B. (2006). Post-traumatic growth and psychosocial adjustment of daughters of breast cancer survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum, 33(3), 543–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. O’Connor, B. P. (2000). SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 32(3), 396–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pakenham, K. I., Sofronoff, K., & Samios, C. (2004). Finding meaning in parenting a child with Asperser syndrome: Correlates of sense making and benefit finding. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 25, 245–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pan, J. Y. (2011). A resilience-based and meaning-oriented model of acculturation: A sample of mainland Chinese postgraduate student in Hong Kong. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 592–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Park, C. L. (2004). The notion of growth following stressful life experiences: Problems and prospects. Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 69–76.Google Scholar
  55. Park, C. L., Aldwin, C. M., Fenster, J. R., & Snyder, L. B. (2008). Pathways to posttraumatic growth versus posttraumatic stress: Coping and emotional reactions following the September 11, 2011, terrorist attacks. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 78(3), 300–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Park, C. L., Cohen, L. H., & Murch, R. L. (1996). Assessment and prediction of stress-related growth. Journal of Personality, 64, 71–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Park, C. L., & Lechner, S. (2006). Measurement issues in assessing growth following stressful life experiences. In L. G. Calhoun & R. G. Tedeschi (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth (pp. 47–67). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  58. Parra-Cardona, J. R., Bulock, L. A., Imig, D. R., Villarruel, F. A., & Gold, S. J. (2006). “Trabajando Duro Todos Los Dias”: Learning from the life experiences of Mexican-origin migrant families. Family Relations, 55(3), 361–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pernice, R., Trlin, A., Henderson, A., & North, N. (2000). Employment and mental health of three groups of immigrants to New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 29, 24–29.Google Scholar
  60. Powell, S., Rosner, R., Butollo, W., Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2003). Posttraumatic growth after war: A study with former refugees and displaced people in Sarajevo. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59, 71–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rabe, S., Zollner, T., Maercker, A., & Karl, A. (2006). Neural correlates of posttraumatic growth after severe motor vehicle accidents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 880–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rayn, J. (2000). A Guide to Teaching International Students. Oxford: Oxford Brooks University.Google Scholar
  63. Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: An interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25(2), 173–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Syed, M., & Azmitia, M. (2009). Longitudinal trajectories of ethnic identity during the college years. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 19(4), 601–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tarry, E. (2011). Is West really best? Social and cultural tensions international students experience having studied at British universities. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 35(1), 69–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tassie, S., & Whelan, T. (2007). Mainland Chinese students in Australia: The potential for stress-related growth. Journal of Psychology in Chinese Societies, 8(1), 71–89.Google Scholar
  67. Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1996). The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9(3), 455–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tucker, L. R., & Lewis, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38(1), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tugade, M. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 320–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Vaughn, A. A., Roesch, S. C., & Aldridge, A. A. (2009). Stress-related growth in racial/ethnic minority adolescents: Measurement structure and validity. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69(1), 131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Warring, S. (2010). Facilitating independence amongst Chinese international students completing a Bachelor of Applied Business Studies Degree. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 47(4), 379–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Weiss, T., & Berger, R. (2008). Posttraumatic growth and immigration: Theory, research and practice implication. In S. Joseph & P. A. Linley (Eds.), Trauma, recovery and growth: Positive psychological perspective on posttraumatic stress. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  73. Ye, J. (2006). An examination of acculturative stress, interpersonal social support, and use of online ethnic social groups among Chinese international students. The Howard Journal of Communications, 17, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ye, S. (2009). Factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): The role of wording effects. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 197–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yu, B. (2010). Learning Chinese abroad: The role of language attitudes and motivation in the adaptation of international students in China. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 31(3), 301–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zwick, W. R., & Velicer, W. F. (1986). Comparison of five rules for determining the number of components to retain. Psychological Bulletin, 99(3), 432–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jia-Yan Pan
    • 1
  • Daniel Fu Keung Wong
    • 2
  • Shengquan Ye
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Social WorkHong Kong Baptist UniversityHong KongHong Kong
  2. 2.City University of Hong KongKowloon TongHong Kong

Personalised recommendations