Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 1639–1655 | Cite as

Post-migration Growth Scale for Chinese International Students: Development and Validation

  • Jia-Yan Pan
  • Daniel Fu Keung Wong
  • Shengquan Ye
Research Paper


There has been a significant paradigm shift in recent acculturation research from a psychopathological perspective to a resilience framework. However, one indicator of positive adaptation outcomes in acculturation—measurement of personal growth in migration—is lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a Post-migration Growth Scale (PMGS) for Chinese international students. A 14-item scale was developed through in-depth interviews, item analysis and factor analysis. The scale was initially validated in a sample of 400 mainland Chinese students studying in Hong Kong. Exploratory factor analysis suggested two factors (interpersonal growth and intrapersonal growth), which were cross-validated in an independent sample of Chinese international students in Australia from mainland China (n = 154) by confirmatory factor analysis. The PMGS showed satisfactory internal consistency reliability and concurrent validity. The PMGS can thus be a reliable and valid instrument to measure Chinese international students’ personal growth from overseas study experiences. Limitations were discussed and implications were suggested.


Post-migration growth Resilience Scale development Scale validation Chinese International students 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jia-Yan Pan
    • 1
  • Daniel Fu Keung Wong
    • 2
  • Shengquan Ye
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Social WorkHong Kong Baptist UniversityHong KongHong Kong
  2. 2.City University of Hong KongKowloon TongHong Kong

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