Advertisement

Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 525–550 | Cite as

Toward a Better Understanding of the Relationship Between Friendship and Happiness: Perceived Responses to Capitalization Attempts, Feelings of Mattering, and Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs in Same-Sex Best Friendships as Predictors of Happiness

  • Melikşah DemirEmail author
  • Ingrid Davidson
Research Paper

Abstract

Friendship is a consistent correlate of happiness, yet less is known about the associations of friendship specific experiences and feelings with happiness. In this study (n = 4,382) the roles of perceived responses to capitalization attempts, perceived mattering to and satisfaction of basic psychological needs in same-sex best friendships in happiness among men and women were investigated. Findings showed that although all of the friendship variables were positively associated with happiness to varying degrees, basic needs satisfaction emerged as the strongest predictor of happiness. Additional analyses revealed that competence need satisfaction was the most important need predicting happiness. Importantly, these findings were gender invariant. The findings were discussed in light of theory and empirical literature and suggestions were made for future research.

Keywords

Capitalization Ethnic groups Friendship Happiness Perceived mattering Psychological needs satisfaction Same-sex best friendship 

References

  1. Adams, G., & Plaut, V. C. (2003). The cultural grounding of personal relationship: Friendship in North American and West African worlds. Personal Relationships, 10, 335–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antonucci, T. C., & Akiyama, H. (1987). An examination of sex differences in social support among older men and women. Sex Roles, 17, 737–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Argyle, M. (2001). The psychology of happiness. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Arnett, J. J. (2008). The neglected 95%: Why American psychology needs to become less American. American Psychologist, 63, 602–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Azmitia, M., Ittel, A., & Brenk, C. (2006). Latino-heritage adolescents’ friendships. In X. Chen, D. C. French, & B. H. Schneider (Eds.), Peer relationships in cultural context (pp. 426–451). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldassare, M., Rosenfield, S., & Rook, K. S. (1984). The types of social relations predicting elderly well-being. Research on Aging, 6, 549–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baltes, B. B., Parker, C. P., Young, L. M., Huff, J. W., & Altmann, R. (2004). The practical utility of importance measures in assessing the relative importance of work related perceptions and organizational characteristics on work related outcomes. Organizational Research Methods, 7, 326–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  9. Baumeister, R., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berry, D. S., & Hansen, J. S. (1996). Positive affect, negative affect, and social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 796–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berscheid, E., & Reis, H. T. (1998). Attraction and close relationships. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (4th ed., pp. 193–281). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  12. Buote, V. M., Pancer, S. M., Pratt, M. W., Adams, G., Birnie-Lefcovitch, S., Polivy, J., et al. (2007). The importance of friends: Friendship and adjustment among 1st-year university students. Journal of Adolescent Research, 22, 665–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burks, V. S., Dodge, K. A., & Price, J. M. (1995). Models of internalizing outcomes of early rejection. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 683–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burt, R. S. (1987). Strangers, friends, and happiness. Social Networks, 9, 311–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Camfield, L., Choudhury, K., & Devine, J. (2009). Well-being, happiness and why relationships matter: Evidence from Bangladesh. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10, 71–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rogers, W. L. (1976). The quality of American life. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  17. Chan, Y., & Lee, R. (2006). Network size, social support and happiness in later life: A comparative study of Beijing and Hong Kong. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 87–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chaplin, L. N. (2009). Please may I have a bike? Better yet, may I have a hug? An examination of children’s and adolescents’ happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10, 541–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cheng, H., & Furnham, A. (2002). Personality, peer relations, self-confidence as predictors of happiness and loneliness. Journal of Adolescence, 25, 327–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chirkov, V. I., Ryan, R. M., & Willness, C. (2005). Cultural context and psychological needs in Canada and Brazil: Testing a self-determination approach to internalization of cultural practices, identity and well-being. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36, 425–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen, Y. A. (1961). Social structure and personality: A casebook. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  22. Cohen, S., Sherrod, D. R., & Clark, M. S. (1986). Social skills and the stress protective role of social support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 963–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Collins, W. A., & van Dulmen, M. H. M. (2006). Friendships and romantic relationships in emerging adulthood. In J. J. Arnett & J. Tanner (Eds.), Emerging adulthood: Scientific perspectives. Washington: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  24. Connolly, K. M., & Myers, J. (2002). Wellness and mattering: The role of holistic factors in job satisfaction. Journal of Employment Counseling, 40, 152–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cooper, H., Okamura, L., & Gurka, V. (1992). Social activity and subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 573–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  27. Cutrona, C. E., & Russell, D. (1987). The provisions of social relationships and adaptation to stress. In W. H. Jones & D. Perlman (Eds.), Advances in personal relationships (Vol. 1, pp. 37–67). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  28. Deci, E. L., La Guardia, J. G., Moller, A. C., Scheiner, M. J., & Ryan, R. M. (2006). On the benefits of giving as well as receiving autonomy support: Mutuality in close friendships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 313–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  30. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: The University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  32. Demir, M. (2011). My best friend will be there for me when things go right: Capitalization, friendship and happiness. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  33. Demir, M., & Orthel, H. (2011). Friendship, real-ideal discrepancies and well-being: Gender differences. Journal of Psychology, 145, 173–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Demir, M., Orthel, H., & Andelin, A. K. (in press). Friendship and happiness. In I. Boniwell & S. David (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Happiness. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Demir, M., & Özdemir, M. (2010). Friendship, need satisfaction and happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11, 243–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Demir, M., Őzdemir, M., & Weitekamp, L. A. (2007). Looking to happy tomorrow with friends: Best and close friendships as they predict happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8, 243–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Demir, M., Özen, A., Achoui, M., Baduni, O., Bilyk, N., et al. (2012). A multinational study of the correlates of same-sex best friendship quality and conflict. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  38. Demir, M., Özen, A., Doğan, A., Bilyk, N., & Tyrell, F. (2011). I matter to my friend, therefore I am happy: Friendship, mattering, and happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 983–1005.Google Scholar
  39. Demir, M., & Urberg, K. A. (2004). Friendship and adjustment among adolescents. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 88, 68–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Demir, M., & Weitekamp, L. A. (2007). I am so happy ‘cause today I found my friend: Friendship and personality as predictors of happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8, 181–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Devlin, A. S. (1996). Survival skills training during freshman orientation: Its role in college adjustment. Journal of College Student Development, 37, 324–334.Google Scholar
  42. Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Diener, E., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2008). Happiness: Unlocking the mysteries of psychological wealth. Malden, MA: Wiley/Blackwell.Google Scholar
  44. Diener, E., Lucas, R. E., & Oishi, S. (2002). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and life satisfaction. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dixon Rayle, A. (2005). Adolescent gender differences in mattering and wellness. Journal of Adolescence, 28, 753–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dixon Rayle, A., & Chung, K. (2007). Revisiting first-year college students’ mattering: Social support, academic stress, and the mattering experience. Journal of College Student Retention, 9, 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Doğan, A., & Demir, M. (2009). Capitalization, friendship quality, and happiness among emerging adults in Turkey and the USA. Paper presented at the 4th Conference on Emerging Adulthood, Atlanta, GA, USA.Google Scholar
  49. DuBois, D. L., & Hirsch, B. J. (1990). School and neighborhood friendship patterns of blacks and whites in early adolescence. Child Development, 61, 524–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Elliot, A. J., McGregor, H. A., & Thrash, T. M. (2002). The need for competence. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 361–387). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  51. Elliott, G., Kao, S., & Grant, A. (2004). Mattering: Empirical validation of a social-psychological concept. Self and Identity, 3, 339–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ellison, C. G. (1990). Family ties, friendships, and subjective well-being among black Americans. Journal of Marriage and Family, 52, 298–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Erikson, E. H. (1982). The life cycle completed. A review. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  54. Franco, N., & Levitt, M. J. (1998). The social ecology of middle childhood: Family support, friendship quality, and self-esteem. Family Relations, 47, 315–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. French, D. C., Bae, A., Pidada, S., & Lee, O. (2006). Friendships of Indonesian, South Korean, and US college students. Personal Relationships, 13, 69–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Friedlander, L., Reid, G., Shupak, N., & Cribbie, R. (2007). Social support, self-esteem, and stress as predictors of adjustment to university among first-year undergraduates. Journal of College Student Development, 48, 259–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fujita, F., Diener, E., & Sandvik, E. (1991). Gender differences in negative affect and well-being: The case for emotional intensity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 427–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1985). Children’s perceptions of the qualities of sibling relationships. Child Development, 56, 448–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gable, S. L., Gonzaga, G. C., & Strachman, A. (2006). Will you be there for me when things go right? Supportive responses to positive disclosures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 904–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gable, S. L., & Reis, H. T. (2001). Appetitive and aversive social interaction. In J. Harvey & A. Wenzel (Eds.), Close romantic relationships: Maintenance and enhancement (pp. 169–194). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  61. Gable, S. L., & Reis, H. T. (2010). Good News! Capitalizing on positive events in an interpersonal context. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 198–257). New York: Elsevier Press.Google Scholar
  62. Gable, S. L., Reis, H. T., Impett, E., & Asher, E. R. (2004). What do you do when things go right? The intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits of sharing positive events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 228–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gladow, N., & Ray, M. (1986). The impact of informal support systems on the well being of low income single parents. Family Relations, 35, 113–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Goodwin, R. (1999). Personal relationships across cultures. Florence, KY: Taylor & Frances/Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Haring, M. J., Stock, W. A., & Okun, M. A. (1984). A research synthesis of gender and social class as correlates of subjective well-being. Human Relations, 37, 645–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hays, R. B. (1985). A longitudinal study of friendship development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 909–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hays, R. B. (1988). Friendship. In S. Duck (Ed.), Handbook of personal relationships: Theory, research, and interventions (pp. 391–408). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  68. Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 61–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hussong, A. M. (2000). Perceived peer context and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 10, 391–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jenkins, S. R., Goodness, K., & Buhrmester, D. (2002). Gender differences in early adolescents’ relationship qualities, self-efficacy, and depression symptoms. Journal of Early Adolescence, 22, 277–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kao, G., & Joyner, K. (2004). Does race and ethnicity matter between friends? Activities among interracial, interethnic, and intraethnic Adolescent Friends. Sociological Quarterly, 45, 557–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. King, A., & Terrance, C. (2008). Best friendship qualities and mental health symptomatology among young adults. Journal of Adult Development, 15, 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. La Guardia, J. G., & Patrick, H. (2008). Self-determination theory as a fundamental theory of close relationships. Canadian Psychology, 49, 201–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. La Guardia, J. G., Ryan, R. M., Couchman, C. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Within-person variation in security attachment: A self-determination theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 367–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Langston, C. A. (1994). Capitalizing on and coping with daily-life events: Expressive responses to positive events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1112–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Laurenceau, J. P., Barrett, L. F., & Pietromonaco, P. R. (1998). Intimacy as a process: The importance of self-disclosure and responsiveness in interpersonal exchanges. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1238–1251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Laursen, B., & Bukowski, W. M. (1997). A developmental guide to the organisation of close relationships. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 21, 747–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lent, R. (2004). Toward a unifying theoretical and practical perspective on well-being and psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51, 482–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Levitt, M. J., Guacci-Franco, N., & Levitt, J. L. (1993). Convoys of social support in childhood and early adolescence: Structure and function. Developmental Psychology, 29, 811–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lu, L. (1995). The relationship between subjective well-being and psychosocial variables in Taiwan. The Journal of Social Psychology, 135, 351–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). The how of happiness: A scientific approach to getting the life you want. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  82. Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychologyical Bulletin, 131, 803–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Maisel, N., Gable, S. L., & Strachman, A. (2008). Responsive behaviors in good times and in bad. Personal Relationships, 15, 317–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mak, L., & Marshall, S. (2004). Perceived mattering in young adults’ romantic relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 21, 469–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Marshall, S. K. (2001). Do I matter? Construct validation of adolescents’ perceived mattering to parents and friends. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 473–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mattei, D., & Schaefer, C. E. (2004). An investigation of the validity of the subjective happiness scale. Psychological Reports, 94, 288–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Menard, S. (1995). Applied logistic regression analysis (Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07–106). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  89. Mendelson, M. J., & Aboud, F. E. (1999). Measuring friendship quality in late adolescents and young adults: McGill friendship questionnaires. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 31, 130–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Monsour, M. (2002). Women and men as friends: Relationships across the life span in the 21st century. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  91. Myers, R. (1990). Classical and modern regression with applications (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Duxbury.Google Scholar
  92. Myers, D., & Diener, E. (1995). Who is happy? Psychological Science, 6, 10–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nangle, D. W., Erdley, C. A., Newman, J. E., Mason, C. A., & Carpenter, E. M. (2003). Popularity, friendship quantity, and friendship quality: Interactive influences on children’s loneliness, and depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 546–555.Google Scholar
  94. O’Meara, D. (1989). Cross-sex friendship: Four basic challenges of an ignored relationship. Sex Roles, 21, 525–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Oldenburg, C. M., & Kerns, K. A. (1997). Associations between peer relationships and depressive symptoms: Testing moderator effects of gender and age. Journal of Early Adolescence, 17, 319–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Özen, A., Sümer, N., & Demir, M. (2011). Predicting friendship quality with rejection sensitivity and attachment security. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 28, 163–181.Google Scholar
  97. Pagano, M., & Hirsch, B. J. (2007). Friendships and romantic relationships of Black and White Adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 347–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Patrick, J. H., Cottrell, L. E., & Barnes, K. A. (2001). Gender, emotional support, and well-being among the rural elderly. Sex Roles, 45, 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Patrick, H., Knee, C. R., Canavello, A., & Lonsbary, C. (2007). The role of need fulfillment in relationship functioning and well-being: A self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 434–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pinquart, M., & Sörensen, S. (2000). Influences of socioeconomic status, social network, and competence on subjective well-being in later life: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 15, 187–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pittman, L. D., & Richmond, A. (2008). University belonging and friendship quality during the transition to college: Links to self perceptions and psychological symptoms. Journal of Experimental Education, 76, 343–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Proulx, C. M., Helms, H. M., & Buehler, C. (2007). Marital quality and personal well-being: A meta analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 69, 576–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Reis, H. T. (2001). Relationship experiences and emotional well-being. In C. D. Ryff, & B. H. Singer, (Eds.), Emotion, social relationships, and health. Series in affective science. (pp. 57–86). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Reis, H. T., Clark, M. S., & Holmes, J. G. (2004). Perceived partner responsiveness as an organizing construct in the study of intimacy and closeness. In D. J. Mashek & A. Aron (Eds.), The handbook of closeness and intimacy (pp. 201–228). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  105. Reis, H. T., & Shaver, P. (1988). Intimacy as an interpersonal process. In S. Duck, D. F. Hay, S. E. Hobfoll, & W. Ickes (Eds.), Handbook of personal relationships: Theory, research, and interventions (pp. 367–389). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
  106. Reis, H. T., Sheldon, K. M., Gable, S. L., Roscoe, J., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). Daily well-being: The role of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 419–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Reisman, J. M. (1981). Adult friendships. In S. Duck & R. Gilmour (Eds.), Personal relationships 2: Developing personal relationships (pp. 205–230). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  108. Requena, F. (1995). Friendship and subjective well-being in Spain: Across-national comparison with the United States. Social Indicators Research, 35, 271–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Richey, M., & Richey, H. (1980). The significance of best-friend relationships in adolescence. Psychology in the Schools, 17, 536–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rojas, M. (2006). Life satisfaction and satisfaction in domains of life: Is it a simple relationship? Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 467–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rook, K. S. (1987). Social support versus companionship: Effects on life stress, loneliness, and evaluations by others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1132–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rosenberg, M. (1985). Self-concept and psychological well-being in adolescence. In R. L. Leahy (Ed.), The development of self (pp. 205–246). Toronto: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  113. Rosenberg, M., & McCullough, B. (1981). Mattering: Inferred significance and mental health among adolescents. Research in Community and Mental Health, 2, 163–182.Google Scholar
  114. Roy, R., Bennenson, J., & Lilly, F. (2000). Beyond intimacy: Conceptualizing sex differences in same-sex friendships. The Journal of Psychology, 134, 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rusbult, C. E., Verette, J., Whitney, G. A., Slovik, L. F., & Lipkus, I. (1991). Accommodation processes in close relationships: Theory and preliminary empirical evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 53–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ryan, R. M., La Guardia, J. G., Solky-Butzel, J., Chirkov, V., & Kim, Y. (2005). On the interpersonal regulation of emotions: Emotional reliance across gender, relationships, and cultures. Personal Relationships, 12, 145–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Saphire-Bernstein, S., & Taylor, S. E. (in press). Relationships and well-being. In I. Boniwell & S. David (Eds.), Oxford handbook of happiness. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Schieman, S., & Taylor, J. (2001). Statuses, roles, and the sense of mattering. Sociological Perspectives, 44, 469–484.Google Scholar
  120. Schiffrin, H. H., & Nelson, S. K. (2010). Stressed and happy? Investigating the relationship between happiness and perceived stress. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11, 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sheets, V. L., & Lugar, R. (2005). Friendship and gender in Russia and the United States. Sex Roles, 52, 131–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sheldon, K. M., Elliot, A. J., Kim, Y., & Kasser, T. (2001). What is satisfying about satisfying events? Testing 10 candidate psychological needs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 325–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sheldon, K. M., & Filak, V. (2008). Manipulating autonomy, competence and relatedness support in a game-learning context: New evidence that all three needs matter. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 267–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sheldon, K. M., Kasser, T., Houser-Marko, L., Jones, T., & Turban, D. (2005). Doing one’s duty: Chronological age, felt autonomy, and subjective well-being. European Journal of Personality, 19, 97–115.Google Scholar
  125. Sheldon, K. M., & Niemiec, C. P. (2006). It’s not just the amount that counts: Balanced need satisfaction also affects well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 331–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., & Reis, H. T. (1996). What makes for a good day? Competence and autonomy in the day and in the person. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 1270–1279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sheldon, K. M., & Tan, H. (2007). The multiple determination of well-being: Independent effects of positive needs, traits, goals, selves, social supports, and cultural contexts. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8, 565–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Swami, V., Stieger, S., Voracek, M., Dressler, S. G., Eisma, L., & Furnham, A. (2009). Psychometric evaluation of the Tagalog and German subjective happiness scales and a cross-cultural comparison. Social Indicators Research, 93, 393–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  130. Taylor, S. E. (2010). Social support: A review. In H. S. Friedman (Ed.), Oxford handbook of health psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  131. Taylor, J., & Turner, J. (2001). A longitudinal study of the role and significance of mattering to others for depressive symptoms. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 42, 310–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Soenens, B., & Luyckx, K. (2006). Autonomy and relatedness among Chinese sojourners and applicants: Conflictual or independent predictors of well-being and adjustment? Motivation and Emotion, 30, 273–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Walen, H. R., & Lachman, M. E. (2000). Social support and strain from partner, family, and friends: Costs and benefits for men and women in adulthood. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 17, 5–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Watson, G. (1930). Happiness among adult students of education. The Journal of Educational Psychology, 21, 79–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Way, N., & Chen, L. (2000). Close and general friendships among African American, Latino, and Asian American adolescents from low-income families. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15, 274–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Way, N., Cowal, K., Gingold, R., Pahl, K., & Bissessar, N. (2001). Friendship patterns among African-American, Asian-American, and Latino adolescents from low-income families. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 18, 29–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Way, N., & Robinson, M. G. (2003). A longitudinal study of the effects of family, friends, and school experiences on the psychological adjustment of ethnic minority, low-SES adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18, 324–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Wei, M. F., Shaffer, P. A., Young, S. K., & Zakalik, R. A. (2005). Adult attachment, shame, depression, and loneliness: The mediation role of basic psychological needs satisfaction. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 591–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Weiss, R. S. (1974). The provisions of social relationships. In Z. Rubin (Ed.), Doing unto others: Joining, molding, confirming, helping, loving (pp. 17–26). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  141. Wellman, B. (1992). Men in networks: Private communities, domestic friendships. In P. M. Nardi (Ed.), Men’s friendships (pp. 74–114). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  142. White, R. W. (1963). Ego and reality in psychoanalytic theory. Psychological Issues Series, Monograph No. 11. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  143. White, R. W. (1965). The experience of efficacy in schizophrenia. Psychiatry, 28, 199–211.Google Scholar
  144. Wilson, W. (1967). Correlates of avowed happiness. Psychological Bulletin, 67, 294–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wilson, P. M., Longley, K., Muon, S., Rodgers, W. M., & Murray, T. C. (2006). Examining the contributions of perceived psychological need satisfaction to well-being in exercise. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 11, 243–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Winstead, B. A., Derlega, V. J., & Rose, S. (1997). Gender and close relationships. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffUSA

Personalised recommendations