Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 457–473 | Cite as

Some Like It Mild and Not Too Wet: The Influence of Weather on Subjective Well-Being

  • Marie ConnollyEmail author
Research Paper


More and more economists and politicians are advocating the use of comprehensive measures of well-being, on top of the usual national accounting measures, to assess the welfare of populations. Researchers using subjective well-being data should be aware of the potential biasing effects of the weather on their estimates. In this paper, the responsiveness of well-being to climate and transitory weather conditions is investigated by analyzing subjective well-being data collected in the Princeton Affect and Time Survey. General satisfaction questions about life in general, life at home, health and one’s job, as well as questions concerning feelings intensities during specific episodes are studied. Women are much more responsive than men to the weather, and life satisfaction decreases with the amount of rain on the day of the interview. Low temperatures increase happiness and reduce tiredness and stress, raising net affect, and high temperatures reduce happiness, consistent with the fact that the survey was conducted in the summer. Methods to reduce the possible biases are suggested in the conclusion.


Subjective well-being Life satisfaction Happiness Weather Temperature Precipitation 



Funding from SSHRC and FQRSC is greatly acknowledged. I would like to thank Alan Krueger for making the data available and the project possible and Rod Hill for helpful comments. Yann Fortin provided excellent research assistance. All remaining errors are my own.

Supplementary material

10902_2012_9338_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (121 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 111 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Université du Québec à Montréal, Cirpée, CiranoMontrealCanada

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