Advertisement

Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 701–727 | Cite as

They Need to be Different, They Feel Happier in Authentizotic Climates

  • Arménio RegoEmail author
  • Miguel Pina e Cunha
Research Paper

Abstract

The study shows how the perceptions of six authentizotic climate dimensions (spirit of camaraderie, trust and credibility of the leaders, open and frank communication with the leaders, opportunities for learning and personal development, fairness/justice, and work-family conciliation) interact with the need for uniqueness (NFU) in predicting affective well-being (AWB) at work. Participants are 342 individuals, all young graduate engineers participating in a course on ethics and deontology. Both the perceptions of authentizotic climates and the NFU predict unique variance of AWB. Perceptions of authentizotic climates (excepting work-family conciliation) interact with NFU in predicting AWB: (a) the relationship between perceptions of authentizotic climates and AWB is stronger when NFU is greater; (b) the relationship between NFU and AWB is stronger when perceptions of authentizotic climates are more positive.

Keywords

Authentizotic climates Affective well-being at work Happiness Need for uniqueness 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are very grateful to our anonymous reviewers and to Antonella Delle Fave, the Editor in Chief, for their helpful comments and suggestions.

References

  1. Amabile, T. M., Barsade, S. G., Mueller, J. S., & Staw, B. M. (2005). Affect and creativity at work. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50, 367–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ames, D. R., & Iyengar, S. S. (2005). Appraising the unusual: Framing effects and moderators of uniqueness-seeking and social projection. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41(3), 271–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnold, K. A., Turner, N., Barling, J., Kelloway, E. K., & McKee, M. C. (2007). Transformational leadership and psychological well-being: The mediating role of meaningful work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(3), 193–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arthaud-Day, M. L., Rode, J. C., Mooney, C. H., & Near, J. P. (2005). The subjective well-being construct: A test of its convergent, discriminant, and factorial validity. Social Indicators Research, 74, 445–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aycan, Z., & Eskin, M. (2005). Relative contributions of childcare, spousal support, and organizational support in reducing work-family conflict for men and women: The case of Turkey. Sex Roles, 53(7/8), 453–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagozzi, R. P. (2003). Positive and negative emotions in organizations. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 176–193). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  7. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benach, J., Benavides, F. G., Platt, S., Diez-Roux, A., & Muntaner, C. (2000). The health damaging potential of new types of flexible employment: A challenge for public health researchers. American Journal of Public Health, 90(8), 1016–1017.Google Scholar
  9. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bertrandias, L., & Goldsmith, R. E. (2006). Some psychological motivations for fashion opinion leadership and fashion opinion seeking. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 10(1), 25–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  12. Brewer, M. B. (2003). Optimal distinctiveness, social identity, and the self. In M. Leary & J. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity (pp. 480–491). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  13. Brief, A. B., & Weiss, H. M. (2002). Organizational behavior: Affect in the workplace. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 279–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brower, H. H., Schoorman, F. D., & Tan, H. H. (2000). A model of relational leadership: The integration of trust and leader–member exchange. Leadership Quarterly, 11(2), 227–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burchell, B. (1994). The effects of labour market position, job insecurity, and unemployment on psychological health. In D. Gallie, C. Marsh, & C. Vogler (Eds.), Social change and the experience of unemployment (pp. 188–212). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Cameron, K. S., Dutton, J. E., & Quinn, R. E. (Eds.). (2003). Positive organizational scholarship. San Francisco: Berrett Koehler.Google Scholar
  17. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  18. Cohen-Charash, Y., & Spector, P. E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86(2), 278–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, O. L. H., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 425–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1(1), 16–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Daniels, K. (2000). Measures of five aspects of affective well-being at work. Human Relations, 53(2), 275–294.Google Scholar
  22. Danna, K., & Griffin, R. W. (1999). Health and well-being in the workplace: A review and synthesis of the literature. Journal of Management, 25(3), 357–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Gagné, M., Leone, D. R., Usunov, J., & Kornazheva, B. P. (2001). Need satisfaction, motivation, and well-being in the work organizations of a former Eastern bloc country: A cross-cultural study of self-determination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(8), 930–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2003). Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 403–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dirks, K. T., & Ferrin, D. L. (2002). Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 611–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dutton, J. E., Duberich, J. M., & Harquail, C. V. (1994). Organizational images and member identification. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39(2), 239–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 350–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. English, T., & Chen, S. (2007). Culture and self-concept stability: Consistency across and within contexts among Asian Americans and European Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(3), 478–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fitness, J. (2000). Anger in the workplace: An emotion script approach to anger episodes between workers and their supervisors, coworkers and subordinates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(2), 147–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Forgas, J. P., & George, J. M. (2001). Affective influences on judgments and behavior in organizations: An information processing perspective. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86(1), 3–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Francis-Smythe, J. A., & Robertson, I. T. (2003). The importance of time congruity in the organization. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 52(2), 298–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fredrickson, B. L. (2003). Positive emotions and upward spirals in organizations. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 163–175). San Francisco: Berrett Koehler.Google Scholar
  33. Fromkin, H. L. (1972). Feelings of interpersonal undistinctiveness: An unpleasant affective state. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 6, 178–185.Google Scholar
  34. Gavin, J. H., & Mason, R. O. (2004). The virtuous organization: The value of happiness in the workplace. Organizational Dynamics, 33(4), 379–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. George, J. M., & Zhou, J. (2007). Dual tuning in a supportive context: Joint contributions of positive mood, negative mood, and supervisory behaviors to employee creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 50(3), 605–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Greenberg, J. (2010). Organizational injustice as an occupational health risk. The Academy of Management Annals, 4(1), 205–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Greenhaus, J. H., Allen, T. D., & Spector, P. E. (2006). Health consequences of work-family conflict: The dark side of the work-family interface. Research in Occupational Stress and Well-Being, 5, 61–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Grubb, E. L., & Grathwohl, H. L. (1967). Consumer self-concept, symbolism, and market behavior: A theoretical approach. Journal of Marketing, 31(4), 22–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hair, J. F., Money, A. H., Samouel, P., & Page, M. (2007). Research methods for business. West Sussex: Wiley.Google Scholar
  40. Hornsey, M. J., & Jetten, J. (2004). The individual within the group: Balancing the need to belong with the need to be different. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(3), 248–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Houkes, I., Janssen, P. P. M., de Jonge, J., & Bakker, A. B. (2003). Specific determinants of intrinsic work motivation, emotional exhaustion and turnover intention: A multisample longitudinal study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76, 427–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ilies, R., Morgeson, F. P., & Nahrgang, J. D. (2005). Authentic leadership and eudaemonic well being. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 373–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. James, L. R., Choi, C. C., Ko, C. E., McNeil, P. K., Minton, M. K., Wright, M. A., et al. (2008). Organizational and psychological climate: A review of theory and research. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17(1), 5–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. James, L. A., & James, L. R. (1989). Integrating work environment perceptions: Explorations into the measurement of meaning. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 739–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jesuino, J. C. (2002). Latin Europe cluster: From South to North. Journal of World Business, 37, 81–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Joy, S. (2004). Innovation motivation: The need to be different. Creativity Research Journal, 6(2), 313–330.Google Scholar
  47. Judge, T. A., & Klinger, R. (2008). Job satisfaction: Subjective well-being at work. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 393–413). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  48. Kavanagh, D. J., & Bower, G. H. (1985). Mood and self-efficacy: Impact of joy and sadness on perceived capabilities. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9(5), 507–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kets de Vries, M. F. R. (2001). Creating authentizotic organizations: Well-functioning individuals in vibrant companies. Human Relations, 54(1), 101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kim, H. S., & Drolet, A. (2003). Choice and self-expression: A cultural analysis of variety-seeking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 373–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kramer, R. M., & Tyler, T. R. (Eds.). (1996). Trust in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  52. Leana, C., Appelbaum, E., & Shevchuk, I. (2009). Work process and quality of care in early childhood education: The role of job crafting. Academy of Management Journal, 52(6), 1169–1192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1297–1350). Skokie, IL: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  54. Lu, L. (1999). Personal and environmental causes of happiness: A longitudinal study. Journal of Social Psychology, 139(1), 79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lucas, R. E. (2008). Personality and subjective well-being. In In. M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 171–194). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  56. Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131(6), 803–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lyubomirsky, S., Tkach, C., & DiMatteo, M. R. (2006). What are the differences between happiness and self-esteem? Social Indicators Research, 78(3), 363–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mahler, M. S., Pine, F., & Bergman, A. (1975). The psychological birth of the human infant. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  59. Marsh, H. W., & Hocevar, D. (1985). Application of confirmatory factor analysis to the study of self-concept: First- and higher-order factor models and their invariance across groups. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 562–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mauno, S., Kinnunen, U., & Pyykkö, M. (2005). Does work–family conflict mediate the relationship between work–family culture and self-reported distress? Evidence from five Finnish organizations. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78(4), 509–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nasser, F., & Takahashi, T. (2003). The effect of using item parcels on ad hoc goodness-of-fit indexes in confirmatory factor analysis: An example using Sarason’s reactions to tests. Applied Measurement in Education, 16(1), 75–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. O’Driscoll, M. P., Brough, P., & Kalliath, T. J. (2004). Work/family conflict, psychological well-being, satisfaction and social support: A longitudinal study in New Zealand. Equal Opportunities International, 23(1/2), 36–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Parker, C. P., Baltes, B. B., Young, S. A., Huff, J., Altmann, R., LaCost, H., et al. (2003). Relationships between psychological climate perceptions and work outcomes: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(4), 389–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pavot, W. (2008). The assessment of subjective well-being: Success and shortfalls. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 124–140). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  65. Pervin, L. A. (1989). Persons, situations, interactions: The history of a controversy. Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 350–359.Google Scholar
  66. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method bias in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Prati, L. M., Douglas, C., Ferris, G. R., Ammeter, A. P., & Buckley, M. R. (2003). Emotional intelligence, leadership effectiveness, and team outcomes. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 11(1), 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Price, J. L., & Mueller, C. W. (1986). Handbook of Organizational Measurement. Marshfield, MA: Pitman.Google Scholar
  69. Rego, A., & Cunha, M. P. (2008). Perceptions of authentizotic climates and employee happiness: Pathways to individual performance? Journal of Business Research, 61(7), 739–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rego, A., & Cunha, M. P. (2009a). How individualism-collectivism orientations predict happiness in a collectivistic context. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10, 19–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rego, A., & Cunha, M. P. (2009b). Do the opportunities for learning and personal development lead to happiness? It depends on work-family conciliation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(3), 334–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rego, A., Ribeiro, N., & Cunha, M. P. (2010). Perceptions of organizational virtuousness and happiness as predictors of organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 93, 215–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rego, A., Ribeiro, N., Cunha, M. P., & Jesuino, J. C. (2011). How happiness mediates the organizational virtuousness and affective commitment relationship. Journal of Business Research, 64, 524–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rego, A., Souto, S., & Cunha, M. P. (2009). Does the need to belong moderate the relationship between perceptions of spirit of camaraderie and employees’ happiness? Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(2), 148–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ruvio, A. (2008). Unique like everybody else? The dual role of consumers’ need for uniqueness. Psychology & Marketing, 25(5), 444–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaeimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schimmack, U., Radhakrishnan, P., Oishi, S., Dzokoto, V., & Ahadi, S. (2002). Culture, personality and subjective well-being: Integrating process models of life satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 582–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sedikides, C., Gaertner, L., & Toguchi, Y. (2003). Pancultural self-enhancement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(1), 60–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Shaw, J. D., & Gupta, N. (2004). Job complexity, performance and well-being: When does supplies-values fit matter? Personnel Psychology, 57, 847–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal wellbeing: the self-concordance model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7(4), 482–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., Rawsthorne, L. J., & Ilardi, B. (1997). Trait self and true self: Cross-role variation in the Big-Five personality traits and its relations with psychological authenticity and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(6), 1380–1393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Snyder, M. (1974). Self-monitoring of expressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30(4), 526–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Snyder, C. R., & Fromkin, H. L. (1977). Abnormality as a positive characteristic: The development and validation of a scale measuring need for uniqueness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86(5), 518–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Snyder, C. R., & Fromkin, H. L. (1980). Uniqueness: The human pursuit of difference. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  86. Spector, P. E., Cooper, C. L., Poelmans, S., & 12 other authors. (2004). A cross-national comparative study of work-family stressors, working hours and well-being. Personnel Psychology, 57(1), 119–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2002). An emotion-centered model of voluntary work behavior: Some parallels between counterproductive behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Human Resource Management Review, 12(2), 269–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Construct definition, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 1442–1465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tafarodi, R. W., Marshall, T. C., & Katsura, H. (2004). Standing out in Canada and Japan. Journal of Personality, 72(4), 785–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tepper, B. J. (2001). Health consequences of organizational injustice. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86(2), 197–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tepper, K., & Hoyle, R. H. (1996). Latent variable models of need for uniqueness. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 31(4), 467–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. ter Doest, L., & de Jonge, J. (2006). Testing causal models of job characteristics and employee well-being: A replication study using cross-lagged structural equation modelling. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 79(3), 499–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Thomas, C. H., & Lankau, M. J. (2009). Preventing burnout: The effects of LMX and mentoring on socialization, role stress, and burnout. Human Resource Management, 48(3), 417–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tsui, A., Egan, T., & O’Reilly, C. (1992). Being different: Relational demography and organizational attachment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37(4), 549–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Turban, D., Stevens, C., & Lee, F. (2009). Effects of conscientiousness and extraversion on new labor market entrants’ job search: The mediating role of metacognitive activities and positive emotions. Personnel Psychology, 62(3), 553–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tyler, T. R. (1989). The psychology of procedural justice: A test of the group-value model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(5), 830–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vignoles, V. L., Chryssochoou, X., & Breakwell, G. M. (2000). The distinctiveness principle: Identity, meaning, and the bounds of cultural relativity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4(4), 337–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wang, A., & Cheng, B. (2010). When does benevolent leadership lead to creativity? The moderating role of creative role identity and job autonomy. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(1), 106–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Weiss, H. M., Suckow, K., & Cropanzano, R. (1999). Effects of justice conditions on discrete emotions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(5), 786–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Westerhof, G. J., Thissen, T., Dittmann-Kohli, F., & Stevens, N. L. (2006). What is the problem? A taxonomy of life problems and their relation to subjective well-being in middle and late adulthood. Social Indicators Research, 79, 97–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. White, R. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wilson, M. G., Dejoy, D. M., Vanderberg, R. J., Richardson, H. A., & McGrath, L. (2004). Work characteristics and employee health and well-being: Test of a model of healthy work organization. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(4), 565–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R. (2004). The role of psychological well-being in job performance: A fresh look at an age-old quest. Organizational Dynamics, 33(4), 338–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wrzesniewski, A. (2003). Finding positive meaning in work. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 296–308). San Francisco: Berrett Koehler.Google Scholar
  105. Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J. E. (2001). Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 179–201.Google Scholar
  106. Wu, T., & Hu, C. (2009). Abusive supervision and employee emotional exhaustion: Dispositional antecedents and boundaries. Group & Organization Management, 34(2), 143–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidade de AveiroAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.UNIDE, Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL)LisbonPortugal
  3. 3.NOVA – School of Business and EconomicsLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations