Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 275–289 | Cite as

A Model of Subjective Well-Being for Adolescents in High School

Article

Abstract

The aim of this study is to develop and test a subjective well-being model for adolescents in high school. A total of 255 adolescents in high school (131 female and 124 male) participated in this study. Data was collected by using the general needs satisfaction questionnaire, questionnaire for the strategies to increase subjective well-being, life satisfaction questionnaire and positive and negative affects questionnaire. The structural equation modelling method was used for analysis of the data. The results of the analysis showed that in the original model, the individual variables and the total effect of variables were directly and indirectly related to subjective well being of adolescents in high school. The direct and indirect effects of the independent variables to subjective well-being were found significant. The findings suggest that to enhance the subjective well-being of high school students, a combination of strategies and satisfaction of needs is essential.

Keywords

Subjective well-being Satisfaction of needs Strategies Adolescents 

References

  1. Allen, J. P., Hauser, S. T., Bell, K. L., & O’Connor, T. G. (1994). Longitudinal assessment of autonomy and relatedness in adolescent-family interactions as predictors of adolescent ego development and self-esteem. Child Development, 65, 179–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ash, C., & Huebner, E. S. (2001). Environmental events and life satisfaction reports of adolescents: A test of cognitive mediation. School Psychology International, 22, 320–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baard, P. P., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1998). Intrinsic need satisfaction. A motivational basis of performance and well-being in work settings. Unpublished manuscript, Fordham University.Google Scholar
  5. Baker, J. A. (1998). The social context of school satisfaction among urban, low-income, African–American students. School Psychology Quarterly, 13, 25–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baltes, P. B. (1987). Theoritical propositons of life-span developmental psychology: On the dynamics between growth and decline. Developmental Psychology, 23, 611–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bentler, P. M., & Bonnet, D. C. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88(3), 588–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buss, D. M. (2000). The evolution of happiness. American Psychologist, 55, 15–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç-Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2008). Scientific research method. Ankara: Pegem A Press.Google Scholar
  10. Chen, X. (2000). Growing up in a collectivistic culture: Socialization and socioemotional development in Chinese children. In A. L. Comunian & U. Gielen (Eds.), International perspectives on human development (pp. 331–354). Lengerich: Pabst.Google Scholar
  11. Cheng, H., & Furnham, A. (2002). Personality, peer relations, and self-confidence as predictors of happiness and loneliness. Journal of Adolescence, 25, 327–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cihangir-Çankaya, Z., & Bacanlı, H. (2003). Adaptation of the needs satisfaction in general scale. Paper presented at the meeting of VII. National Psychological Counseling, Malatya, Turkey.Google Scholar
  13. Collins, W. A., Hennighausen, K. H., Schmit, D. T., & Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Developmental precursors of romantic relationships: A longitudinal analysis. In S. Shulman & W. A. Collins (Eds.), Romantic relationships in adolescence: Developmental perspectives (pp. 69–84). San Francisco: Jossey–Bass.Google Scholar
  14. Collins, W. A., & Laursen, B. (2004). Changing relationships, changing youth: Interpersonal contexts of adolescent development. Journal of Early Adolescence, 24, 55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Collins, W. A., & Repinski, D. J. (1994). Relationships during adolescence: Continuity and change in interpersonal perspective. In R. Montemayor, G. R. Adams, & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Personal relationships during adolescence (pp. 7–36). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1999). Toward an evolutionary taxonomy of treatable conditions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 453–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crocker, A. D., & Hakim–Larson, J. (1997). Predictors of pre–adolescent depression and suicidal ideation. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 29, 76–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation: Perspectives on motivation (pp. 237–288). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  19. Deiner, E. (1984). Subjective well being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Diener, E. (1994). Assessing subjective well-being: Progress and opportunities. Social Indicators Research, 31, 103–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Diener, E., & Diener, M. (1995). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 653–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eaton, S. B., Konner, M., & Shostak, M. (1988). Stone agers in the fast lane: Chronic degenerative diseases in evolutionary perspective. The American Journal of Medicine, 84, 739–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eberly, M. B., & Montemayor, R. (1999). Adolescent affection and helpfulness toward parents: A 2-year follow up. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 226–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Erikson, E. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  25. Eryılmaz, A. (2010). Developing a scale about subjective well being increases strategies for adolescents. Journal of Turkish Psychological Counseling, 33, 81–88.Google Scholar
  26. Eryılmaz, A. & Yorulmaz, A (2006). The Way of being happy for adolescents. Paper presented at the Xth conference of European association for research on adolescence, Antalya, Turkey.Google Scholar
  27. Fordyce, M. W. (1977). Development of a program to increase happiness. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 24, 511–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fordyce, M. W. (1983). A program to increase happiness: Further studies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 30, 483–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (1993). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York: Mcgraw Hill.Google Scholar
  30. Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1992). Age and sex differences in perceptions of networks of personal relationships. Child Development, 63, 103–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gençöz, T. (2000). Positive and negative affect schedule: A study of validity and reliability. Turkish Journal of Psychology, 46, 19–26.Google Scholar
  32. Grinde, B. (2002). Darwinian happiness: Evolution as a guide for living and understanding human behavior. Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press.Google Scholar
  33. Grotevant, H. D., & Cooper, C. (1985). Patterns of interaction in family relationships and the development of identity exploration in adolescence. Child Development, 56, 415–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hartup, W. W., & Stevens, N. (1997). Friendship and adaptation in the life course. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 355–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hecht, D. B., Inderbitzen, H. M., & Bukowski, A. L. (1998). The relationship between peer status and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 153–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hortaçsu, N. (1997). Cross-cultural comparison of need importance and need satisfaction during adolescence: Turkey and the United States. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 158(3), 287–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huebner, E. S. (1991). Correlates of life satisfaction in children. School Psychology Quarterly, 6, 103–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Huebner, E. S. (2004). Research on assessment of life satisfaction in children and adolescents. Social Indicators Research, 66, 3–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Huebner, E. S., & Alderman, G. L. (1993). Convergent and discriminant validation of a children’s life satisfaction scale: Its relationship to selfand teacher-reported psychological problems and school functioning. Social Indicators Research, 30, 71–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Huebner, E. S., Drane, W., & Valois, R. F. (2000). Levels and demographic correlates of adolescent life satisfaction reports. Social Psychology International, 21(3), 281–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Huebner, E. S., & Gilman, R. (2003). Toward a focus on positive psychology in school psychology. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, 99–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Huebner, E. S., Suldo, S. M., Smith, L. C., & McKnight, C. G. (2004). Life satisfaction in children and youth: Empirical foundations and implications for school psychologists [Special issue]. Psychology in the Schools, 41, 81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ilardi, B. C., Leone, D., Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). Employee and supervisor ratings of motivation: Main effects and discrepancies associated with job satisfaction and adjustment in a factory setting. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23, 1789–1805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jimerson, S. R., Stewart, K., Skokut, M., Cardenas, S. C., & Malone, H. (2009). How many school psychologists are there in each country of the world? International estimates of school psychologists and school psychologist-to-student ratios. School Psychology International, 30(6), 555–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jöreskog, K., & Sörbom, D. (1993). Lisrel 8: Structural equation modelling with the simplis command language. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International Inc.Google Scholar
  46. Joronen, K., & Kurki, A. (2005). Familial contribution to adolescent subjective well being. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 11(3), 125–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jozefiak, T., Larsson, B., & Wichstrom, L. (2009). Changes in quality of life among Norwegian school children: A six-month follow-up study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 7(7).Google Scholar
  48. Karatzias, A., Chouliara, Z., Power, K., & Swanson, V. (2006). Predicting general well- being from self esteem and affectivity: An exploratory study with Scottish adolescents. Quality of Life Research, 15, 1143–1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kasser, V., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). The relation of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness to vitality, well-being, and mortality in a nursing home. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 935–954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kenny, D. A., & McCoach, D. B. (2003). Effect of the number of variables on measures of fit in structural equation modelling. Structural Equation Modelling, 10(3), 333–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modelling. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  52. Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modelling (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  53. Koker S (1991). Comparing the level of the life satisfaction of the normal adolescents and adolescents with problems. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.Google Scholar
  54. La Greca, A. M., & Harrison, H. W. (2005). Adolescent peer relations, Friendships and romantic relationships: Do they predict social anxiety and depression? Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 49–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. La Greca, A. M., & Lopez, N. (1998). Social anxiety among adolescents: Linkages with peer relations and friendships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 83–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Larson, R. W., Richards, M. H., Moneta, g., Holmbeck, G., & Duckett, E. (1996). Changes in adolescents’ daily interactions with their families from ages 10–18: Disengagement and transformation. Developmetal Psychology, 32, 744–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lerner, R. M. (1985). Constitutional psychology. In A. M. Kuper & J. Kuper (Eds.), The social science encyclopedia (pp. 156–157). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  58. Lykken, D., & Tellegen, A. (1996). Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon. Psychological Science, 7, 186–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lyubomirsky, S. (2001). Why are some people happier than others?: The role of cognitive and motivational processes in well-being. American Psychologist, 56, 239–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McCullough, G., Huebner, S., & Laughlin, J. E. (2002). Life events, self concept, and adolescent’s positive subjective well-being. Psychology in the School, 3, 281–290.Google Scholar
  62. Mcknight, C. G., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. (2002). Relationships among stressful life events, temperament, problem behaviour, and global life satisfaction in adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 677–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Moore, S., & Boldero, J. (1991). Psychosocial development and friendship functions in Adolescence. Sex Roles, 25(9/10), 521–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Myers, D., & Deiner, E. (1995). Who is happy. American Psychological Society, 6(1), 1–19.Google Scholar
  65. Noom, M. J., Dekovic, M., & Meeus, W. H. J. (1999). Autonomy, attachment and psychosocial adjustment during adolescence: A double–edged sword? Journal of Adolescence, 22, 771–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Park, N. (2004). The role of subjective well-being in positive youth development. The Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591(1), 25–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Park, N. (2005). Life satisfaction among Korean children and youth: A developmental perspective. School Psychology International Journal, 26, 209–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Park, N., & Huebner, E. S. (2005). A cross-cultural study of the levels and correlates of life satisfaction among adolescents. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36, 444–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1973). Memory and intelligence. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  70. Rask, K., Kurki, P. A., & Paavilainen, E. (2003). Adolescent subjective well-being and family dynamics. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 17, 129–138.Google Scholar
  71. Reis, H. T., Sheldon, K. M., Gable, S. L., Roscoe, J., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). Daily well-being: The role of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 419–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ryan, M. R., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ryan, R. M., & Grolnick, W. S. (1986). Origins and pawns in the classroom: Self–report and projective assessment of individual differences in children’s perceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 550–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Šarakauskienė, Z., & Bagdonas, A. (2010). Relationship between components of subjective well-being and socio-demographic variables in older schoolchildren. Psichologija, 41, 18–32.Google Scholar
  75. Sencer, M. (1989). Method for social science. İstanbul: Beta Press.Google Scholar
  76. Shek, D. T. L. (1998). A longitudinal study of Hong Kong adolescents’ and parents’ perceptions of family functioning and well-being. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159, 389–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Shek, D. T. L., & Lee, T. Y. (2007). Family life quality and emotional quality of life in Chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage. Social Indicators Research, 80(2), 393–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sheldon, K. M., & Bettencourt, B. A. (2002). Psychological need-satisfaction and subjective well-being within social groups. British Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sheldon, K. M., Reis, H. T., & Ryan, R. (1996). What makes for a good day? Competence and autonomy in the day and in the person. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 1270–1279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Steinberg, L. (2004). Risk-taking in adolescence: What changes, and why? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Steinberg, L. (2005). Cognitive and affective development in adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2004). Does life satisfactionmoderate the effects of stressful life events on psychopathological behavior in adolescence? School Psychology Quarterly, 19, 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Suldo, S. M., Riley, K., & Shaffer, E. S. (2006). Academic correlates of children and adolescents’ life satisfaction. School Psychology International, 27(5), 567–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tkach, C., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2006). How do people pursue happiness? Relating personality, happiness increasing strategies, and well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 183–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vargus-Adams, J. (2006). Longitudinal use of the child health questionnaire in childhood cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 48, 343–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Varni, J. W., Burwinkle, T. M., & Szer, I. S. (2004). The PedsQL multidimensional fatigue scale in pediatric rheumatology: Reliability and validity. Journal of Rheumatology, 31, 2494–2500.Google Scholar
  87. Watson, D., Tellegen, A., & Clark, L. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wigfield, A., Eccles, J., Mac Iver, D., Reuman, D., & Midgley, C. (1991). Transitions at early adolescence: Changes in children’s domain-specific self-perceptions and general self-esteem across the transition to junior high school. Developmental Psychology, 27, 552–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wires, J. W., Barocas, R., & Hollenbeck, A. R. (1994). Determinants of adolescent identity development: A cross-sequential study of boarding school boys. Adolescence, 29(114), 361–378.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Eskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskişehirTurkey

Personalised recommendations