Advertisement

Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 12, Issue 6, pp 1007–1022 | Cite as

Relations Among Mindfulness, Achievement-Related Self-Regulation, and Achievement Emotions

  • Andrew J. Howell
  • Karen Buro
Research Paper

Abstract

Mindfulness has been hypothesized to directly facilitate well-being, and to indirectly do so by enhancing self-regulated functioning. No prior research has examined these relationships in the domain of academic achievement. The current study tested relationships among mindfulness, achievement-related self-regulation (e.g., delay-of-gratification, help-seeking, and self-control) and achievement emotions among a sample of 290 undergraduate students. Results revealed that indices of mindfulness, achievement-related self-regulation, and achievement emotions were significantly inter-correlated. And, results supported the hypothesis that the prediction of achievement emotions by mindfulness was mediated by greater self-regulation over achievement. Results are considered in light of recent evidence for associations among mindfulness, self-regulation, and well-being in other domains of functioning; with respect to theoretical and practical implications; and with respect to the possible fruitfulness of research bridging self-regulation as a character strength and achievement-related functioning.

Keywords

Mindfulness Achievement Self-regulation Emotions Well-being 

References

  1. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bembenutty, H. (2009). Academic delay of gratification, self-regulation of learning, gender differences, and expectancy-value. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 347–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bembenutty, H., & Karabanick, S. A. (1998). Academic delay of gratification. Learning and Individual Differences, 44, 193–202.Google Scholar
  4. Bembenutty, H., & Karabanick, S. A. (2004). Inherent association between academic delay of gratification, future time perspective, and self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology Review, 16, 35–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 211–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Caldwell, K., Harrison, M., Adams, M., Quin, R. H., & Greeson, J. (2010). Developing mindfulness in college students through movement-based courses: Effects on self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, stress, and sleep quality. Journal of American College Health, 58, 433–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cardaciotto, L., Herbert, J. D., Forman, E. M., Moitra, E., & Farrow, V. (2008). The assessment of present-moment awareness and acceptance: The Philadelphia mindfulness scale. Assessment, 15, 204–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Daniels, L. M., Stupnsiky, R. H., Pekrun, R., Haynes, T. L., Perry, R. P., & Newall, N. E. (2009). A longitudinal analysis of achievement goals: From affective antecedents to emotional effects and achievement outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 948–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Pennsylvania: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  12. Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Evans, D. R., Baer, R. A., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2009). The effects of mindfulness and self-consciousness on persistence. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 379–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Feltman, R., Robinson, M. D., & Ode, S. (2009). Mindfulness as a moderator of neuroticism-outcome relations: A self-regulation perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 953–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Golub, S. A., Gilbert, D. T., & Wilson, T. D. (2009). Anticipating one’s troubles: The costs and benefits of negative expectations. Emotion, 9, 277–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Heeren, A., Van Broeck, N., & Philippot, P. (2009). The effects of mindfulness on executive processes and autobiographical memory specificity. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 403–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Howell, A. J. (2009). Flourishing: Achievement-related correlates of students’ well-being. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Howell, A. J., Digdon, N. L., & Buro, K. (2010). Mindfulness predicts sleep-related self-regulation and well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 419–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Howell, A. J., Digdon, N. L., Buro, K., & Sheptycki, A. R. (2008). Relations among mindfulness, well-being, and sleep. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 773–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hyland, T. (2009). Mindfulness and the therapeutic function of education. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 43, 119–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jha, A. P., Stanley, E. A., Kiyonaga, A., Wong, L., & Gelfand, L. (2010). Examining the protective effects of mindfulness training on working memory capacity and affective experience. Emotion, 10, 54–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kaplan, A., & Maehr, M. L. (1999). Achievement goals and student well-being. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24, 330–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Karabenick, S. A., & Knapp, J. R. (1991). Relationship of academic help seeking to the use of learning strategies and other instrumental achievement behavior in college students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 221–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lounsbury, J. W., Fisher, L. A., Levy, J. J., & Welsh, D. P. (2009). An investigation of character strengths in relation to the academic success of college students. Individual Differences Research, 7, 52–69.Google Scholar
  26. Lykins, E. L. B., & Baer, R. A. (2009). Psychological functioning in a sample of long-term practitioners of mindfulness meditation. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 226–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 593–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McDonald, R. P., & Ho, M.-H. R. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological Methods, 7, 64–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moller, A. C., & Elliot, A. J. (2006). The 2 x 2 achievement goal framework: An overview of empirical research. In A. V. Mittel (Ed.), Focus on educational psychology (pp. 307–326). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  30. Moore, K. A., & Lippman, L. H. (2005). What do children need to flourish? Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Napoli, M., Krech, P. R., & Holley, L. C. (2005). Mindfulness training for elementary school students: The attention academy. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 21, 99–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Oishi, S., Diener, E., & Lucas, R. E. (2007). The optimum level of well-being: Can people be too happy? Perspectives on psychological science, 2, 346–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Palmer, A., & Rodger, S. (2009). Mindfulness, stress, and coping among university students. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 43, 198–212.Google Scholar
  34. Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009). Strengths of character in schools. In R. Gilman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 65–76). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  35. Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Strengths of character and well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 603–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2006). Character strengths in fifty-four nations and the fifty US states. Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 118–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2006). Achievement goals and discrete achievement emotions: A theoretical model and prospective test. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 583–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2009). Achievement goals and achievement emotions: Testing a model of their joint relations with academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 115–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., & Perry, R. P. (2005). Academic emotions questionnaire (AEQ). User’s manual. University of Munich: Department of Psychology.Google Scholar
  40. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in students’ self- regulated learning and achievement: A program of quantitative and qualitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37, 91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Peterson, C., Ruch, W., Beermann, U., Park, N., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2007). Strengths of character, orientations to happiness, and life satisfaction. Journal of Positive Psychology, 2, 149–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Washington, DC/New York: Oxford University Press/American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  43. Philippot, P., & Segal, Z. (2009). Mindfulness based psychological interventions: Developing emotional awareness for better being. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 16, 285–306.Google Scholar
  44. Pintrich, R. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 451–502). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  45. Pintrich, R. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1993). Reliability and predictive validity of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 801–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pressley, M., Borkowski, J., & Schneider, W. (1987). Cognitive strategies: Good strategy users coordinate metacognition and knowledge. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development (Vol. 4, pp. 89–129). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  47. Radel, R., Sarrazin, P., Legrain, P., & Gobance, L. (2009). Subliminal priming of motivational orientation in educational settings: Effect on academic performance moderated by mindfulness. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 695–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shao, R., & Skarlicki, D. P. (2009). The role of mindfulness in predicting individual performance. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 41, 195–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shapiro, S. L., Brown, K. W., & Astin, J. A. (2010). Toward the integration of meditation into higher education: A review of research evidence. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  50. Shapiro, S. L., Oman, D., Thoresen, C. E., Plante, T. G., & Flinders, T. (2008). Cultivating mindfulness: Effects on well-being. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64, 840–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shapiro, S. L., & Schwartz, G. E. R. (1999). The role of intention in self-regulation: Toward intentional systemic mindfulness. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 253–273). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  52. Shapiro, S. L., & Schwartz, G. E. R. (2000). Intentional systemic mindfulness: An integrative model for self-regulation and health. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 16, 128–135.Google Scholar
  53. Singh, N. N., Wahler, R. G., Adkins, A. D., & Myers, R. E. (2003). Soles of the feet: A mindfulness-based self-control intervention for aggression by an individual with mild mental retardation and mental illness. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24, 158–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive- behavioural correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 504–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 65–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tangney, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Boone, A. L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72, 271–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tuckman, B. W. (1991). The development and concurrent validity of the Procrastination Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 5, 473–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tuominen-Soini, H., Salmela-Aro, K., & Niemivirta, M. (2008). Achievement goal orientations and subjective well-being: A person-centred analysis. Learning and Instruction, 18, 251–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wolters, C. A. (2003). Understanding procrastination from a self-regulated learning perspective. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 179–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yates, G., & Abd-El-Farrah, S. M. (2007). Implicit theory of intelligence scale: Testing for factorial invariance and mean structure. Presented at the annual meeting of the Australian Association for Research in Education.Google Scholar
  61. Zeidner, M., Boekaerts, M., & Pintrich, P. R. (2000). Self-regulation: Directions and challenges for future research. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self- regulation (pp. 749–768). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  62. Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45, 166–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Grant MacEwan UniversityEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations