Advertisement

Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 681–716 | Cite as

The 3P Model: A General Theory of Subjective Well-Being

  • Adorée Durayappah
Research Paper

Abstract

Empirical research focusing on the field of subjective well-being has resulted in a range of theories, components, and measures, yet only a modicum of work leans towards the establishment of a general theory of subjective well-being. I propose that a temporal model of subjective well-being, called the 3P Model, is a parsimonious, unifying theory, which accounts for, as well as unites, disparate theories and measurements. The 3P Model categorizes the components of subjective well-being under the temporal states of the Present, the Past, and the Prospect (Future). The model indicates how each state is important to a global evaluation of subjective well-being and how each state is distinct yet connected to the other states. Additionally, the model explains how measures of subjective well-being are affected by cognitive biases (e.g., peak-end rule, impact bias, retrospective bias), which factor into evaluations of the temporal states, and meta-biases (e.g., temporal perspectives), which factor into global evaluations of life satisfaction. Finally, future research is recommended to further support the model as well as create interventions that can be chosen based on an individual’s temporal preference or that can be designed to counteract certain biases.

Keywords

Subjective well-being Happiness Emotion Mood Cognitive biases Time perspective 

References

  1. Abrahamson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., & Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49–74.Google Scholar
  2. Addis, D. R., Wong, A. T., & Schacter, D. L. (2007). Remembering the past and imagining the future: Common and distinct neural substrates during event construction and elaboration. Neuropsychologia, 45, 1363–1377.Google Scholar
  3. Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being. New York, NY: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  4. Argyle, M. (1987). The psychology of happiness. London, England: Methuen.Google Scholar
  5. Austin, J. T., & Vancouver, J. B. (1996). Goal constructs in psychology: Structure, process, and content. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 338–375.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (2000). Self-efficacy: The foundation of agency. In W. J. Perrig & A. Grob (Eds.), Control of human behavior, mental processes, and consciousness (pp. 17–34). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Ben-Shahar, T. (2007). Happier. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  8. Bentham, J. (1948). An introduction to the principles of morals and legislation. New York, NY: Hafner. (Original work published in 1789).Google Scholar
  9. Berridge, K. C. (1999). Pleasure, pain, desire, and dread: Hidden core processes of emotion. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, et al. (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 525–557). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  10. Bohart, A. C. (1993). Emphasizing the future in empathy responses. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 33, 12–29.Google Scholar
  11. Boniwell, I., Osin, E., Linley, P. A., & Ivanchenko, G. (2010). A question of balance: Time perspective and well-being in British and Russian samples. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(1), 24–40.Google Scholar
  12. Boniwell, I., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2003). Time to find the right balance. The Psychologist, 16, 129–131.Google Scholar
  13. Bower, G. H. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36, 129–148.Google Scholar
  14. Boyd, J. N., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1997). Constructing time after death: The transcendental-future time perspective. Time and Society, 6, 5–24.Google Scholar
  15. Boyer, P. (2008). Evolutionary economics of mental time travel? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(6), 219–224.Google Scholar
  16. Boyle, P. A., Barnes, L. L., Buchman, A. S., & Bennett, D. A. (2009). Purpose in life is associated with mortality among community-dwelling older persons. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 574–579.Google Scholar
  17. Bradburn, N. M., & Caplovitz, D. (1965). Reports of happiness. Chicago, IL: Aldine.Google Scholar
  18. Brickman, P., & Campbell, D. T. (1971). Hedonic relativism and planning the good society. In M. H. Appley (Ed.), Adaptation level theory: A symposium (pp. 287–302). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  19. Brickman, P., Coates, D., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1978). Lottery winners and accident victims: Is happiness relative? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 917–927.Google Scholar
  20. Brief, A. P., Butcher, A. H., George, J. M., & Link, K. E. (1993). Integrating bottom-up and top-down theories of subjective well-being: The case of health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 646–653.Google Scholar
  21. Brunstein, J. C. (1993). Personal goals and subjective well-being: A longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1061–1070.Google Scholar
  22. Bryant, F. B. (1989). A four-factor model of perceived control: Avoiding, coping, obtaining and savouring. Journal of Personality, 57, 773–797.Google Scholar
  23. Bryant, F. B. (2003). Savoring beliefs inventory (SBI): A scale for measuring beliefs about savoring. Journal of Mental Health, 12, 175–196.Google Scholar
  24. Bryant, F. B., Smart, C. M., & King, S. P. (2005). Using the past to enhance the present: Boosting happiness through positive reminiscence. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6, 227–260.Google Scholar
  25. Buckner, R. L., Andrews-Hanna, J. R., & Schacter, D. L. (2008). The brain’s default network: Anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124(1), 1–38.Google Scholar
  26. Buckner, R. L., & Carroll, D. C. (2007). Self-projection and the brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 49–57.Google Scholar
  27. Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rodgers, W. (1976). The quality of American life. New York, NY: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  28. Carver, C. S., Lawrence, J. W., & Scheier, M. F. (1996). A control-process perspective on the origins of affect. In L. L. Martin & A. Tesser (Eds.), Striving and feeling: Interactions among goals, affect, and regulation (pp. 11–52). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Cohn, B. (1999). The lay theory of happiness: Illusions and biases in judging others. Undergraduate dissertation, Princeton University.Google Scholar
  30. Collins, A. M., & Quillian, M. R. (1969). Retrieval time from semantic memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 240–248.Google Scholar
  31. Costa, P., & McCrae, R. (1980). Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 668–678.Google Scholar
  32. Cottle, T. J., & Klineberg, S. L. (1974). The present of things future: Explorations of time in human experience. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  33. Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671–684.Google Scholar
  34. Crawford-Solberg, E., Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Lucas, R. E., & Oishi, S. (2002). Wanting, having, and satisfaction: Examining the role of desire discrepancies in satisfaction with income. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 725–734.Google Scholar
  35. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  36. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Hunter, J. (2003). Happiness in everyday life: The uses of Experience Sampling. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4, 185–189.Google Scholar
  37. Cummins, R. A. (2010). Subjective wellbeing, homeostatically protected mood and depression: A synthesis. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11, 1–17.Google Scholar
  38. Damasio, A. R. (2000). A neurobiology for consciousness. In T. Metzinger (Ed.), Neurol correlates of consciousness: Empirical and conceptual questions (pp. 111–120). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  39. Davidson, R. J. (1992). Anterior cerebral asymmetry and the nature of emotion. Brain and Cognition, 20, 125–151.Google Scholar
  40. Davidson, R. J. (1994). Asymmetric brain function, affective style, and psychopathology: The role of early experience and plasticity. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 741–758.Google Scholar
  41. De Volder, M., & Lens, W. (1982). Academic achievement and future time perspective as a cognitive-motivational concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 566–571.Google Scholar
  42. Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.Google Scholar
  43. Diener, E. (2006). Guidelines for national indicators of subjective well-being and ill-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 397–404.Google Scholar
  44. Diener, E., & Emmons, R. A. (1984). The independence of positive and negative affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1105–1117.Google Scholar
  45. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.Google Scholar
  46. Diener, E., & Fujita, F. (1995). Resources, personal strivings, and subjective well-being: A nomothetic and idiographic approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 926–935.Google Scholar
  47. Diener, E., Sandvik, E., Seidlitz, L., & Diener, M. (1993). The relationship between income and subjective well-being: Relative or absolute. Social Indicators Research, 28, 195–223.Google Scholar
  48. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276–302.Google Scholar
  49. Diener, E., Wirtz, D., & Oishi, S. (2001). End effects of rated life quality: The James Dean Effect. Psychological Science, 12, 124–128.Google Scholar
  50. Diener, E., Wolsic, B., & Fujita, F. (1995). Physical attractiveness and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 120–129.Google Scholar
  51. Drake, L., Duncan, E., Sutherland, F., Abernethy, C., & Henry, C. (2008). Time perspective and correlates of well-being. Time and Society, 17(1), 47–61.Google Scholar
  52. Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109–132.Google Scholar
  53. Ellmore, T. M., Stouffer, K., & Nadel, L. (2008). Divergence of explicit and implicit processing speed during associative memory retrieval. Brain Research, 1229, 155–166.Google Scholar
  54. Elster, J., & Loewenstein, G. (1992). Utility from memory and anticipation. In G. Loewenstein & J. Elster (Eds.), Choice over time (pp. 213–234). New York, NY: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  55. Emmons, R. A. (1986). Personal strivings: An approach to personality and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1058–1068.Google Scholar
  56. Erikson, E. (1963). Childhood and society. New York, NY: W. W. Norton Company.Google Scholar
  57. Fallot, R. D. (1980). The impact on mood on verbal reminiscing in later adulthood. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 10, 385–400.Google Scholar
  58. Feist, G. J. (1995). Psychology of science and history of psychology: Putting behavioral generalizations to the test. Psychological Inquiry, 6(2), 119–123.Google Scholar
  59. Feist, G. J., Bodner, T. E., Jacobs, J. F., Miles, M., & Tan, V. (1995). Integrating top-down and bottom-up structural models of subjective well-being: A longitudinal investigation. The Journal of Personality, 68(1), 138–150.Google Scholar
  60. Festinger, L., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 58(2), 203–210.Google Scholar
  61. Fordyce, M. W. (1977). The happiness measures: A sixty-second index of emotional well-being and mental health. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  62. Fordyce, M. W. (1988). A review of research on the happiness measures: A sixty-second index of happiness and mental health. Social Indicators Research, 20, 355–381.Google Scholar
  63. Fraisse, P. (1963). The psychology of time. New York, NY: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  64. Fredrickson, B. L., & Kahneman, D. (1993). Duration neglect in retrospective evaluations of affective episodes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 45–55.Google Scholar
  65. Fredrickson, B. L., & Losada, M. F. (2005). Positive affect and the complex dynamics of human flourishing. American Psychologist, 60, 678–686.Google Scholar
  66. Fujita, F. (1991). An investigation of the relation between extroversion, neuroticism, positive affect, and negative affect. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Google Scholar
  67. Gilbert, D. (2006). Stumbling on happiness. New York, NY: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  68. Gilbert, S. J., Dumontheil, I., Simons, J. S., Frith, C. D., & Burgess, P. W. (2007). Comment on wandering minds: The default network and stimulus-independent thought. Science, 317, 43.Google Scholar
  69. Gilbert, D. T., Pinel, E. C., Wilson, T. D., Blumberg, S. J., & Wheatley, T. P. (1998). Immune neglect: A source of durability bias in affective forecasting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 617–638.Google Scholar
  70. Gilbert, D. T., & Wilson, T. D. (2007). Prospection: Experiencing the future. Science, 317, 1351–1354.Google Scholar
  71. Gottman, J. M. (1994). What predicts divorce? The relationship between marital processes and marital outcomes. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  72. Guignon, C. (Ed.). (1999). The good life. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.Google Scholar
  73. Gusnard, D. A., Akbudak, E., Shulman, G. L., & Raichle, M. E. (2001). Medial prefrontal cortex and self-referential mental activity: Relation to a default mode of brain function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 4259–4264.Google Scholar
  74. Harley, T. A. (1995). The psychology of language: From data to theory. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  75. Havighurst, R. J., & Glasser, A. (1972). An exploratory study of reminiscence. Journals of Gerontology, 27, 245–253.Google Scholar
  76. Headey, B., Holmstrom, E., & Wearing, A. (1985). Models of well-being and ill-being. Social Indicators Research, 17, 211–234.Google Scholar
  77. Headey, B., Veenhoven, R., & Wearing, A. (1991). Top-down versus bottom-up theories of subjective well-being. Social Indicators Research, 24, 81–100.Google Scholar
  78. Headey, B., & Wearing, A. (1989). Personality, life events, and subjective well-being: Toward a dynamic equilibrium model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 731–739.Google Scholar
  79. James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology (Vol. 1). New York, NY: Dover Press.Google Scholar
  80. Kahneman, D. (1999). Objective happiness. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 3–25). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  81. Kahneman, D. (2000). Evaluation by moments: Past and future. In D. Kahneman & A. Tversky (Eds.), Choices, values and frames (Vol. 38). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press and Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  82. Kahneman, D., Fredrickson, B., Schreiber, C. A., & Redelmeier, D. A. (1993). When more pain is preferred to less: Adding a better end. Psychological Science, 4(6), 401–405.Google Scholar
  83. Kahneman, D., & Krueger, A. B. (2006). Developments in the measurement of subjective well-being. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20(1), 3–24.Google Scholar
  84. Kahneman, D., Krueger, A. B., Schkade, D. A., Schwarz, N., & Stone, A. A. (2004). A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: The day reconstruction method. Science, 306, 1776–1780.Google Scholar
  85. Kahneman, D., Krueger, A. B., Schkade, D. A., Schwarz, N., & Stone, A. A. (2006). Would you be happier if you were richer? A focusing illusion. Science, 312(5782), 1908–1910.Google Scholar
  86. Kahneman, D., & Miller, D. T. (1986). Norm theory: Comparing reality to its alternatives. Psychological Review, 93, 136–153.Google Scholar
  87. Kahneman, D., & Riis, J. (2005). Living, and thinking about it: Two perspectives on life. In F. A. Huppert, N. Baylis, & B. Keverne (Eds.), The science of well-being (pp. 285–304). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Kahneman, D., Slovic, P., & Tversky, A. (Eds.). (1982). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Kamvar, S., Mogilner, C., & Aaker, J. L. (2009). The meaning(s) of happiness. Stanford University Graduate School of Business Research Paper No. 2026. Retrieved from SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1418195.
  90. Kassam, K., Gilbert, D. T., Boston, A., & Wilson, T. D. (2008). Future anhedonia and time discounting. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(6), 1533–1537.Google Scholar
  91. Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). A dark side of the American dream: Correlates of financial success as a life aspiration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 410–422.Google Scholar
  92. Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1996). Further examining the American dream: Differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 80–87.Google Scholar
  93. Keyes, C. L. M. (1998). Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 121–140.Google Scholar
  94. Keyes, C. L. M. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Behavior Research, 43, 207–222.Google Scholar
  95. Kilpatrick, F. P., & Cantril, H. (1960). Self-anchoring scaling: A measure of individuals’ unique reality worlds. Journal of Individual Psychology, 16, 158–173.Google Scholar
  96. Kim-Prieto, C., Diener, E., Tamir, M., Scollon, C., & Diener, M. (2005). Integrating the diverse definitions of happiness: A time-sequential framework of subjective well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6, 261–300.Google Scholar
  97. King, L. A., Eells, J. E., & Burton, C. M. (2004). The good life, broadly defined. In A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 35–52). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  98. Klinger, E., & Cox, W. M. (1987–1988). Dimensions of thought flow in everyday life. Imagination, cognition, and personality, 72, 105–128.Google Scholar
  99. Koo, M., Algoe, S. B., Wilson, T. D., & Gilbert, D. T. (2008). It’s a wonderful life: Mentally subtracting positive events improves people’s affective states, contrary to their affective forecasts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1217–1224.Google Scholar
  100. Kozma, A., Stone, S., & Stones, M. J. (2000). Stability in components and predictors of subjective well-being (SWB): Implications for SWB structure. In E. Diener & D. R. Rahtz (Eds.), Advances in quality of life theory and research (pp. 13–30). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  101. Lazarus, R. S., Kanner, A. D., & Folkman, S. (1980). Emotions: A cognitive-phenomenological analysis. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Theories of emotion (pp. 189–217). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  102. Lennings, C. J. (1996). Self-efficacy and temporal orientation as predictors of treatment outcome in severely dependent alcoholics. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 14, 71–79.Google Scholar
  103. Lewin, K. (1942). Time perspective and moral. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  104. Loewenstein, G., & Schkade, D. (1999). Wouldn’t it be nice? Predicting future feelings. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 85–105). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  105. Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. M. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 616–628.Google Scholar
  106. Lykken, D., & Tellegen, A. (1996). Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon. Psychological Science, 7, 186–189.Google Scholar
  107. Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111–131.Google Scholar
  108. Maddux, J. E. (2002). Self-efficacy: The power of believing you can. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 277–287). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  109. Magnus, K., & Diener, E. (1991). A longitudinal analysis of personality, life events, and subjective well-being. Paper presented at the 63rd annual meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago.Google Scholar
  110. Marcus, G. (2008). Kluge. Boston, MD: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
  111. Markus, H., & Nuris, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41, 954–969.Google Scholar
  112. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370–396.Google Scholar
  113. Maslow, A. H. (1971). Farther reaches of human nature. New York, NY: Viking Penguin.Google Scholar
  114. McAdams, D. P. (1985). Power, intimacy, and the life story: Personological inquiries into identity. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  115. McGaugh, J. L. (2000). Memory—a century of consolidation. Science, 287, 248–251.Google Scholar
  116. Mclntosh, W. D., & Martin, L. L. (1992). The cybernetics of happiness: The relation between goal attainment, rumination, and affect. In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (pp. 222–246). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  117. Medvec, V. H., Madey, S. F., & Gilovich, T. (1995). When less is more: Counterfactual thinking and satisfaction among Olympic medalists. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 603–610.Google Scholar
  118. Metcalfe, J., & Mischel, W. (1999). A hot/cool system analysis of delay of gratification: Dynamics of willpower. Psychological Review, 106(1), 3–19.Google Scholar
  119. Michalos, A. C. (1985). Multiple discrepancies theory (MDT). Social Indicators Research, 16, 347–413.Google Scholar
  120. Miller, R. B., Debacker, T. K., & Greene, B. A. (1999). Perceived instrumentality and academics: The links to task valuing. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 26, 250–260.Google Scholar
  121. Moran, S, Tirri, K., Ulisses, A., & Bundick, M. (2009). Finding purpose in three societies. Paper presented at the international positive psychology conference, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  122. Myers, D. G., & Diener, E. (1995). Who is happy? Psychological Science, 6, 10–19.Google Scholar
  123. Norton, D. L. (1976). Personal destinies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  124. Oishi S. (2004), On-line versus retrospective recall of emotions in the prediction of the longevity of dating relationships. University of Virginia. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  125. Oishi, S., Diener, E., Choi, D. W., Kim-Prieto, C., & Choi, I. (2007). The dynamics of daily events and well-being across cultures: When less is more. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 685–698.Google Scholar
  126. Okun, M. A., & George, L. K. (1984). Physician- and self-ratings of health, neuroticism and subjective well-being among men and women. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 533–539.Google Scholar
  127. Onoda, K., Okamoto, Y., & Yamawaki, S. (2009). Neural correlates of associative memory: The effects of negative emotion. Neuroscience Research, 64(1), 50–55.Google Scholar
  128. Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (2004). Strengths of character and well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 603–619.Google Scholar
  129. Pavot, W., Diener, E., Colvin, C. R., & Sandvik, E. (1991). Further validation of the satisfaction with life scale: Evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, 149–161.Google Scholar
  130. Pavot, W., Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1998). The temporal satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 70, 340–354.Google Scholar
  131. Peterson, C. (2006). A primer in positive psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  132. Peterson, C., Park, N., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Orientations to happiness and life satisfaction: The full life versus the empty life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6, 25–41.Google Scholar
  133. Peterson, C., Ruch, W., Beermann, U., Park, N., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2007). Strengths of character, orientations to happiness, and life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3, 149–156.Google Scholar
  134. Riis, J., Loewenstein, G., Baron, J., Jepson, C., Fagerlin, A., & Ubel, P. A. (2005). Ignorance of hedonic adaptation to hemo-dialysis: A study using ecological momentary assessment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134(1), 3–9.Google Scholar
  135. Roberts, B. W., & Robins, R. W. (2000). Broad dispositions, broad aspirations: The intersection of the big five dimensions and major life goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1284–1296.Google Scholar
  136. Roese, N. J. (1997). Counterfactual thinking. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 133–149.Google Scholar
  137. Roese, N. J., & Olson, J. M. (1995). Outcome controllability and counterfactual thinking. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 620–628.Google Scholar
  138. Rozin, P. (2008). New uncertain vs. familiar-positive experiences [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from e-College @ UPenn Web site: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/lps/graduate/mapp/login.
  139. Rozin, P., & Royzman, E. (2001). Negativity bias, negativity dominance, and contagion. Personality and social psychology review, 5(4), 296–320.Google Scholar
  140. Russell, B. (1930). The conquest of happiness. New York, NY: Liveright.Google Scholar
  141. Russell, J. A. (2003). Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review, 110(1), 145–172.Google Scholar
  142. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.Google Scholar
  143. Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081.Google Scholar
  144. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219–247.Google Scholar
  145. Schimmack, U. (2003). Affect measurement in experience sampling research. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4, 79–106.Google Scholar
  146. Schimmack, U., Oishi, S., & Diener, E. (2002). Cultural influences on the relation between pleasant emotions and unpleasant emotions: Asian dialectic philosophies or individualism-collectivism. Cognition & Emotion, 16(6), 705–719.Google Scholar
  147. Schreiber, C. A., & Kahneman, D. (2000). Determinants of the remembered utility of aversive sounds. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129, 27–42.Google Scholar
  148. Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 513–523.Google Scholar
  149. Schwarz, N., & Strack, F. (1991). Evaluating one’s life: A judgment model of subjective well-being. In F. Strack, M. Argyle, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Subjective well-being: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 27–47). Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  150. Schwarz, N., Strack, F., Kommer, D., & Wagner, D. (1987). Soccer, rooms, and the quality of your life: Mood effects on judgments of satisfaction with life in general and with specific domains. European Journal of Social Psychology, 17, 69–79.Google Scholar
  151. Scollon, C. N., Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2005). An experience sampling and cross-cultural investigation of the relation between pleasant and unpleasant affect. Cognition and Emotion, 19(1), 27–52.Google Scholar
  152. Seidlitz, L., & Diener, E. (1993). Memory for positive versus negative life events: Theories for the differences between happy and unhappy persons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 654–664.Google Scholar
  153. Seligman, M. E. (2006). Learned Optimism: How to change your mind and your life. New York, NY: Vintage.Google Scholar
  154. Seligman, M. E., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60, 410–421.Google Scholar
  155. Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (1998). Pursuing personal goals: Skills enable progress, but not all progress is beneficial. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 1319–1331.Google Scholar
  156. Shulman, G. L., Fiez, J. A., Corbetta, M., Buckner, R. L., & Miezin, F. M. (1997). Common blood flow changes across visual tasks: II. Decreases in cerebral cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 648–663.Google Scholar
  157. Simons, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & Lacante, M. (2004). Placing motivation and future time perspective theory in a temporal perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 16(2), 121–139.Google Scholar
  158. Snyder, C. R. (2000). Handbook of hope: Theory, measures, and applications. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  159. Spinoza. (1985). Ethics. In Spinoza, The collected writings of Spinoza (Vol. 1, pp. 408–620) Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. (Original work published in 1677).Google Scholar
  160. Staats, A. (1991). Unified positivism and unification psychology. American Psychologist, 46, 899–912.Google Scholar
  161. Stallings, M. C., Dunham, C. C., Gatz, M., Baker, L. A., & Bengtson, V. L. (1997). Relationships among life events and psychological well-being: More evidence for a two-factor theory of well-being. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 16, 104–119.Google Scholar
  162. Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The meaning in life questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 80–93.Google Scholar
  163. Steger, M., Kashdan, T. B., Sullivan, B. A., & Lorentz, D. (2008). Understanding the search for meaning in life: Personality, cognitive style, and the dynamic between seeking and experiencing meaning. Journal of Personality, 76(2), 199–228.Google Scholar
  164. Stones, M. J., & Kozma, A. (1991). A magical model of happiness. Social Indicators Research, 25, 31–50.Google Scholar
  165. Strack, F., Schwarz, N., & Gschneidinger, E. (1985). Happiness and reminiscing: The role of time perspective, affect, and mode of thinking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1460–1469.Google Scholar
  166. Stroebe, W., Stroebe, M., Abakoumkin, G., & Schut, H. (1996). The role of loneliness and social support in adjustment to loss: A test of attachment versus stress theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1241–1249.Google Scholar
  167. Suh, D., Diener, E., & Fujita, F. (1996). Events and subjective well-being: Only recent events matter: Erratum. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 842.Google Scholar
  168. Taylor, S. E. (1991). Asymmetrical effects of positive and negative events: The mobilization-minimization hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 67–85.Google Scholar
  169. Thomas, D. L., & Diener, E. (1990). Memory accuracy in the recall of emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 291–297.Google Scholar
  170. Van Praag, B. M. S., Frijters, P., & Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A. (2003). The anatomy of subjective well-being. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 51, 29–49.Google Scholar
  171. Veenhoven, R. (1988). The utility of happiness. Social Indicators Research, 20, 333–354.Google Scholar
  172. Veenhoven, R. (1999). World database of happiness—continuous register of research on subjective appreciation of life. Rotterdam: Erasmus University.Google Scholar
  173. Veenhoven, R. (2004). Happy life years: A measure of gross national happiness. In K. Ura & K. Galay (Eds.), Gross national happiness and development (pp. 287–318). Thimphu, Bhutan: The Centre for Bhutan Studies.Google Scholar
  174. Waterman, A. S. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(4), 678–691.Google Scholar
  175. Watson, J. (1895). Hedonic theories from Aristippus to Spencer. New York, NY: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  176. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.Google Scholar
  177. Wilson, W. (1967). Correlates of avowed happiness. Psychological Bulletin, 67, 294–306.Google Scholar
  178. Wilson, T. D., Centerbar, D. B., Kermer, D. A., & Gilbert, D. T. (2005). The pleasures of uncertainly: Prolonging positive moods in ways people do not anticipate. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 5–21.Google Scholar
  179. Wilson, T. D., Meyers, J., & Gilbert, D. T. (2003). “How happy was I, anyway?” A retrospective impact bias. Social Cognition, 21, 421–446.Google Scholar
  180. Wirtz, D., Kruger, J., Scollon, C. N., & Diener, E. (2004). What to do on spring break? Predicting future choice from online versus recalled affect. Psychological Science, 14, 520–524.Google Scholar
  181. Wyvell, C. L., & Berridge, K. C. (2000). Intra-accumbens amphetamine increases the conditioned incentive salience of sucrose reward: Enhancement of reward “wanting” without enhanced “liking” or response reinforcement. The Journal of Neuroscience, 20(21), 8122–8130.Google Scholar
  182. Zaleski, Z., Cycon, A., & Kurc, A. (2001). Future time perspective and subjective well-being in adolescent samples. In P. Schmuck & K. M. Sheldon (Eds.), Life goals and well-being: Towards a positive psychology of human striving (pp. 58–67). Goettingen, Germany: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.Google Scholar
  183. Zimbardo, P. G. (2002). Just think about it: Time to take our time. Psychology Today, 35, 62.Google Scholar
  184. Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1271–1288.Google Scholar
  185. Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (2008). The time paradox. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  186. Zimbardo, P. G., Keough, K. A., & Boyd, J. N. (1997). Present time perspective as a predictor of risky driving. Personality and Individual Differences, 23, 1007–1023.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Master of Applied Positive Psychology ProgramUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations