Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 293–311 | Cite as

Stability of Typical Patterns of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Swedish Women

  • Lars R. BergmanEmail author
  • Daiva Daukantaite
Research Paper


Typical patterns of general subjective well-being (SWB) were searched for in a representative longitudinal sample of Swedish women (N = 272) at age 43 and 49. Cluster analysis at each age separately resulted in a six-cluster solution at both ages. The two solutions were similar, indicating structural stability across 6 years. Five of the six clusters also showed significant individual stability. Among these clusters, a generalized positive typical pattern and two generalized negative typical patterns were found, one characterized by very high negative affect and one characterized by very low global life satisfaction. A cluster characterized by above average positive and negative affect was also found as well as one characterized by low positive affect. A strong relationship was found between membership in an extreme cluster and the values in certain SWB-related variables, supporting the validity of the typical patterns found. Further, it was shown that cluster membership contributed to the prediction of some validation variables above the prediction achieved by using only SWB components entered as continuous variables, suggesting the presence of interactions and nonlinearities in the SWB area.


Subjective well-being Cluster analysis Typical patterns Person-oriented 



The research reported in this article was supported by the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research and by the Swedish Research Council, Committee for Longitudinal Research. This study was made possible by access to data from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. The scientific leader is Lars R. Bergman. Responsible for the planning, implementation, and financing of the collection of data before 1996 was David Magnusson and after that time Lars R. Bergman.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden

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