Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 311–333

Regulation of Positive Emotions: Emotion Regulation Strategies that Promote Resilience

Article

Abstract

The regulation of emotions is essential in everyday life. In this paper, we discuss the regulation of positive emotional experiences. Our discussion focuses on strategies aimed at maintaining and increasing experiences of positive emotions. We discuss the importance of these strategies for well-being, and suggest that cultivating positive emotions may be particularly useful for building resilience to stressful events. Then, we explore possible mechanisms that link positive emotions to coping for resilient people, with a focus on the automatic activation of positive emotions while coping. We conclude by discussing alternative models and proposing future directions in the work on positive emotion regulation and resilience.

resilience emotion regulation positive emotions 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bargh, J.A.: 1990, ‘Auto-motives: Preconscious determinants of social interaction’, in E.T. Higgins and R.M. Sorrentino (eds.), Handbook of Motivation and Cognition, Vol. 2 (Guilford Press, New York) pp. 93–130Google Scholar
  2. Bargh J.A. (1994). The Four Horsemen of automaticity: Awareness, efficiency, intention, and control in social cognition. In: Wyer R.S. Jr., Srull T.K. (Eds), Handbook of Social Cognition. 2nd ed., Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum pp. 1–40Google Scholar
  3. Bargh J.A. (1997). The automaticity of everyday life In: Wyer R.S. (Ed.), Advances in Social Cognition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates IncGoogle Scholar
  4. Bargh J.A., Chartrand T.L. (1999). The unbearable automaticity of being American Psychologist 54: 462–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bargh J.A., Gollwitzer P.M. (1994). Environmental control of goal-directed action: Automatic and strategic contingencies between situations and behavior Nebraska Symposium 41: 71–124Google Scholar
  6. Bargh J.A., Gollwitzer P.M., Lee-Chai A., Bardollar K., Trotschel R. (2001). The automated will: Nonconscious activation and pursuit of beheavioral goals Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81: 1004–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonanno G.A. (2001). Emotion self-regulation. In: Mayne T.J., Bonanno G.A. (Eds), Emotions: Current Issues and Future Directions. New York, NY: Guilford Press. (pp. 251–285)Google Scholar
  8. Bonanno G.A. (2001). Emotion self-regulation. In: Mayne T.J., Bonanno G.A. (Eds), Emotions: Current Issues and Future Directions. New York, NY: Guilford Press. (pp. 251–285)Google Scholar
  9. Bonanno, G.A.: 2004, `Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events?', American Psychologist 59(1), pp. 20–28.Google Scholar
  10. Bonanno G.A. (2005). Resilience in the face of potential trauma Current Directions in Psychological Science 14: 135–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Block, J. and A.M. Kremen: 1996, `IQ and egoresiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(2), pp. 349–361Google Scholar
  12. Block, J.H., and J. Block: 1980, ‘The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the origination of behavior’, in W.A. Collings (ed.), The Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, Vol. 13 (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ), pp. 39–101Google Scholar
  13. Bryant F.B. (1989). A four-factor model of perceived control: Avoiding, coping, obtaining, and savoring Journal of Personality 57: 773–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bryant F.B. (2003). Savoring Beliefs Inventory (SBI): A scale for measuring beliefs about savouring Journal of Mental Health 12: 175–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carver C.S. (1998). Resilience and thriving: Issues, models and linkages Journal of Social Issues 54: 245–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chaiken S., Trope Y. (1999). Dual-Process Theories in Social Psychology New York: Guilford PressGoogle Scholar
  17. Chesney, M.A., L.A. Darbes, K. Hoerster, J.M. Taylor, D. B. Chambers, and D. E. Anderson: 2005, `Positive emotions: Exploring the other hemisphere in behavioral medicine', International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 12(2), pp. 50–58Google Scholar
  18. Conner T., Tugade M.M., Barrett L.F. (2004). Ecological momentary assessment. In: Anderson N. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage (pp. 291–292)Google Scholar
  19. Denham S.A. (1998). Emotional Development in Young Children New York, NY: Guildford PressGoogle Scholar
  20. Ekman P. (1989). The argument and evidence about universals in facial expressions of emotion. In: Manstead A., Wagner H. (Eds.) Handbook of Social Psychophysiology. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons (pp. 143–164)Google Scholar
  21. Emmons R.A., McCullough M.E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84: 377–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Folkman S. (1997). Positive psychological states and coping with severe stress Social Science and Medicine 45: 1207–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Folkman S., Moskowitz J.T. (2000). Positive affect and the other side of coping American Psychologist 55: 647–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Folkman S., Moskowitz J.T. (2003a). Coping: Pitfalls and promise” Annual Review of Psychology 55: 745–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Folkman S., Moskowitz J.T. (2003b). Positive psychology from a coping perspective Psychological Inquiry 14: 121–125Google Scholar
  26. Fredrickson B.L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology: Special Issue: New Directions in Research on Emotion 2: 300–319Google Scholar
  27. Fredrickson, B.L.: 2000, ‘Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention and Treatment, 3, Article 1. Available on the World Wide Web: http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.htmlGoogle Scholar
  28. Fredrickson B.L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions American Psychologist: Special Issue 56: 218–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fredrickson B.L., Branigan C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires Cognition and Emotion 19: 313–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fredrickson B.L., Levenson R.W. (1998). Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions Cognition and Emotion 12: 191–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fredrickson B.L., Mancuso R.A., Branigan C., Tugade M.M. (2000). The undoing effect of positive emotions Motivation and Emotion 24: 237–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fredrickson B.L., Tugade M.M., Waugh C.E., Larkin G. (2003). What good are positive emotions in crises?: A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84: 365–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gross J.J. (1998). Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74: 224–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gross J.J. (1999). Emotion regulation: Past, present, future Cognition and Emotion 13: 551–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gross J.J. (2001). Emotion regulation in adulthood: Timing is everything Current Directions in Psychological Science 10: 214–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gross J.J., Munoz R.F. (1995). Emotion regulation and mental health Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 2: 151–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gross, J.J., J.M. Richards and O.P. John: ‘Emotion regulation in everyday life’, in D.K. Snyder, J.A. Simpson and J.N. Hughes (eds.), Emotion Regulation in Families: Pathways to Dysfunction and Health (American Psychological Association, Washington DC) (in press)Google Scholar
  38. Grossman P., Niemann L., Schmidt S., Walach H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits Journal of Psychosomatic Research 57: 35–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Handley I.M., Lassiter G.D., Nickell E.F., Herchenroeder L.M. (2004). Affect and automatic mood maintenance Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 40: 106–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Isen A.M. (2000). Positive affect and decision making. In: Lewis M., Haviland-Jones J., (Eds.), Handbook of Emotion. 2nd ed., New York: Guilford, pp. 417–435Google Scholar
  41. Isen A.M., Daubman K.A. (1984). The influence of affect on categorization Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47: 1206–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Isen, A.M., K.A. Daubman, and G.P. Nowicki: 1987, `Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52(6), pp. 1122–1131Google Scholar
  43. Isen A.M., Diamond G.A. (1989). Affect and automaticity. In: Uleman J.S., Bargh J.A., (eds) Unintended Thought. New York: Guilford Press. (pp. 124–152)Google Scholar
  44. Isen, A.M., M.M. Johnson, E. Mertz, and G.F. Robinson: 1985, `The influence of positive affect on the unusualness of word associations', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48(6), pp. 1413–1426Google Scholar
  45. Isen A.M., Patrick R. (1983). The effect of positive feelings on risk taking: When the chips are down Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 31: 194–202Google Scholar
  46. Isen A.M., Simmonds S.F. (1978). The effect of feeling good on a helping task that is incompatible with good mood Social Psychology 41: 345–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Iwasaki Y., Mannell R.C. (2000). Hierarchical dimensions of leisure stress coping Leisure Sciences 22(3): 163–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Iwasaki Y., Mannell R.C. (2003). Leisure, stress, and coping: An evolving area of inquiry Leisure Sciences 25(2–3): 107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kabat-Zinn J. (1990). Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness New York: DeltaGoogle Scholar
  50. Kabat-Zinn J., Massion A.O., Kristeller J., Peterson L.G., Fletcher K.E., Pbert L., Lenderking W.R., Santorelli S.F. (1992). Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders American Journal of Psychiatry 149: 936–943Google Scholar
  51. Kahn B.E., Isen A.M. (1993). The influence of positive affect on variety seeking among safe, enjoyable products Journal of Consumer Research 20(2): 257–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Langston C.A. (1994). Capitalizing on and coping with daily-life events: Expressive responses to positive events Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67: 1112–1125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lazarus R.S. (1993). From psychological stress to the emotions: A history of changing outlooks Annual Review of Psychology 44: 1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lyubomrisky S., Sheldon K.M., Schkade D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change, Review of General Psychology Special Issue: Positive Psychology 19: 111–131Google Scholar
  55. Martin R.A., Lefcourt H.M. (1983) Sense of humor as a moderator of the relation between stressors and moods Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45: 1313–1324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Masten, A.S.: 2001, `Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development', American Psychologist 56(3), pp. 227–238Google Scholar
  57. Masten A.S., Best K.M., Garmezy N. (1990). Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity Development and Psychopathology 2: 425–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Meehan M., Durlak J., Bryant F.B. (1993). The relationship of social support to positive life events and subjective mental health in adolescents Journal of Community Psychology 21: 49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Miller J.J., Fletcher K., Kabat-Zinn J. (1995). Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders General Hospital Psychiatry 17: 192–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Moskowitz J.T., Folkman S., Collette L., Vittinghoff E. (1996). Coping and mood during AIDS-related caregiving and bereavement Annals of Behavioral Medicine 18: 49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nezu A.M., Nezu C.M., Blisset S.E. (1988). Sense of humor as a moderator of the relation between stressful events and psychological distress: A prospective analysis Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54: 520–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Norman, D.A. and T. Shallice: 1986, ‘Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behavior’, in R.J. Davidson, G.E. Schwartz and D. Shapiro (eds.), Consciousness and Self Regulation: Advances in Research and Theory, Vol. 4 (Plenum, New York), pp. 1–18Google Scholar
  63. Parrot W.G. (1993). Beyond hedonism: Motives for inhibiting good moods and maintaining bad moods. In: Wegener D.M., Pennebaker J.W. (Eds.) Handbook of Mental Control. Edgewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. (pp. 278–308)Google Scholar
  64. Ruch, W.: 1993, ‘Exhilaration and humor’, chapter 42, in M. Lewis and J.M. Haviland (eds.), The Handbook of Emotions (Guilford Publications, New York, NY), pp. 605–616Google Scholar
  65. Rutter, M.: 1987, `Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms', American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57(3), pp. 316–331Google Scholar
  66. Ryan, R.M. and E.L. Deci: 2001, `On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being', Annual Review of Psychology, 52, pp. 141–166Google Scholar
  67. Ryff, C.D. and B. Singer: 1998, `The role of purpose in life and personal growth in positive human health', (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers: Mahwah, NJ, US)Google Scholar
  68. Ryff, C.D., and B. Singer: 2000, `Interpersonal flourishing: A positive health agenda for the new millennium. `Personality and Social Psychology Review', Special Issue: Personality and Social Psychology at the Interface, New Directions for Interdisciplinary Research 4(1), pp. 30–44Google Scholar
  69. Shapiro S.L, Astin J.A., Bishop S.R., Cordova M. (2005). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for health care professionals: Results from a randomized trial International Journal of Stress Management 12: 164–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shapiro S.L., Schwartz G.E., Bonner G. (1998). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students Journal of Behavioral Medicine 21: 581–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shiffrin R.M., Dumais S.T. (1981). The development of automatism. In: Anderson J (Ed.), Cognitive Skills and Their Acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. (pp. 111–140)Google Scholar
  72. Shiffrin R.M., Schneider W. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review 84: 127–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schimmack U., Diner E. (2003). Experience sampling methodology in happiness research Journal-of-Happiness-Studies 4: 79–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Scollon C.N., Kim-Pietro C., Diener E. (2003). Experience sampling: Promises and pitfalls, strengths and weaknesses Journal of Happiness Studies 4: 5–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Smith J.C. (1990). Cognitive-Behavioral Relaxation Training: A New System of Strategies for Treatment and Assessment New York: SpringerGoogle Scholar
  76. Surawy C., Roberts J., Silver A. (2005). The effect of mindfulness training on mood and measures of fatigue, activity, an quality of life in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome on a hospital waiting list: A series of exploratory studies Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 33: 103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tugade, M.M., T. Conner and L.F. Barrett. Assessment of mood. Chapter to appear in S. Ayers, A. Baum, C. McManus, S. Newman, K. Wallston, J.␣Weinman, and R. West (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Psychology, Health, and Medicine, 2nd edition (in press)Google Scholar
  78. Tugade M.M., Fredrickson B.L. (2002). Positive emotions and emotional intelligence. In: Feldman Barrett L., Salovey P. (Eds.). The Wisdom of Feelings. New York: Guilford. (pp. 319–340)Google Scholar
  79. Tugade M.M., Fredrickson B.L. (2004). Emotions: Positive emotions and health. In: Anderson N. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. (pp. 306–310)Google Scholar
  80. Wegener D.T., Petty R.E. (1994). Mood-management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 66: 1034–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Werner E., Smith R. (1992). Overcoming the Odds: High-risk Children from Birth to Adulthood New York, NY: Cornell University PressGoogle Scholar
  82. Winkielman P., Berridge K.C. (2004). Unconscious emotion Current Directions in Psychological Science 13: 120–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wolin S.J., Wolin S. (1993). Bound and Determined: Growing Up Resilient in a Troubled Family New York: VillardGoogle Scholar
  84. Wood, J. V., S.A. Heimpel and J.L. Michela: 2003, `Savoring versus dampening: Self-esteem differences in regulating positive affect', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), pp. 566–580Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyVassar CollegePoughkeepsieUSA
  2. 2.University of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations