A participatory process for the design of housing for a First Nations Community
First Nation (Indigenous) on-reserve housing in Canada is in crisis due to severe shortages, high reported instances of mould contamination, overcrowding and structural deficiencies. The Kitamaat reserve of the Haisla First Nation provides one example. The intent of the study reported here was to engage with the Haisla to develop a culturally appropriate, environmentally responsive and energy-efficient housing type that the Haisla could implement in the future. This work was undertaken by Marceau-Evans-Johnson Architects in collaboration with researchers at the University of Victoria. In this article, the circumstances leading to the present housing crisis are reviewed, the consultative design process with the Haisla and its outcomes are described, and the concept design solution which was co-developed for future housing is presented.
KeywordsFirst nations Aboriginal peoples On-reserve housing Community consultation Housing design process
- Abadian, S. (1999). From wasteland to homeland: Trauma and the renewal of indigenous peoples and their communities. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, p 524.Google Scholar
- Adelson, N. (2005). The embodiment of inequity—health disparities in aboriginal Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96, 45–61.Google Scholar
- Assembly of First Nations. (2004). Federal government funding for First Nations—the facts, the myths and the way forward. Retrieved from http://www.afn.ca/cmslib/general/Federal-Government-Funding-to-First-Nations.pdf.
- Assembly of First Nations. (2009). Housing: Special chiefs assembly report–2009. Available at http://www.afn.ca/article.asp?id=105.
- Bureau of the Census. (1995a). American Indian reservation households crowded in 1990. Washington, D.C: Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
- Bureau of the Census. (1995b). Housing of American Indians on reservations—plumbing. SB/95-9, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
- Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (CMHC). (2002). Building a sustainable future: Seabird Island First nation sustainable community demonstration project. Retrieved from http://www.google.ca/search?q=cmhc+seabird+island&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-GB:official&client=firefox-a.
- Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). (2006). CMHC on-reserve programs and initiatives. Retrieved from http://www.cmhcschl.gc.ca/en/ab/onre/.
- Carter, T., & Polevychok, C. (2004). Literature review on issues and needs of aboriginal people to support work on “scoping” research issues for municipal governments and aboriginal people living within their boundaries. pp 1–21.Google Scholar
- Department of Finance. (2006). The budget plan 2006—focusing on priorities. Government of Canada, Retrieved from http://www.fin.gc.ca/budget06/pdf/bp2006e.pdf.
- Department of Housing and Urban Development. (1993). Our home: Buildings of the land: Energy efficiency design guide for Indian housing. United States Government, Retrieved from http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/old/21217.pdf.
- Devine, G. (1999). The housing and homelessness crisis. National Aboriginal Housing Association.Google Scholar
- Dippie, B. W. (1982). The vanishing American: White attitudes and U.S. Indian policy. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
- Drinnon, R. (1980). Facing west: The metaphysics of Indian-hating and empire building. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
- Drossos, A. (2003). The housing conditions of aboriginal Canadians: A determinants of health framework and current policy analysis. Briefing document. Family Network, pp 1–40.Google Scholar
- Foreman, G. (1933). Advancing the Frontier, 1830–1860. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
- Fraser, S. (2002). Report of the auditor general of Canada—Chapter 1: Streamlining first nations reporting to federal organizations. Office of the Auditor General of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.oag-bvg.gc.ca/internet/English/parl_oag_200212_e_1130.html.
- Gareau, M. (2004). An examination of the use of domestic space by Inuit families living in Arviat, Nunavut. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Retrieved from https://www03.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/b2c/b2c/init.do?language=en&shop=Z01EN&areaID=0000000043&productID=00000000430000000055.
- Gareau, M. (2005). Architecture for elder health in remote British Columbia: A Nisga’a led research. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Retrieved from https://www03.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/b2c/b2c/init.do?language=en&shop=Z01EN&areaID=0000000044&productID=00000000440000000066.
- Green, M. (2004). Building communities: First nation best practices for healthy housing and sustainable community development. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Retrieved from https://www03.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/b2c/b2c/init.do?language=en&shop=Z01EN&areaID=0000000021&productID=00000000210000000003.
- Health Canada. (2000). Statistical profile on the health of First Nations in Canada for the year 2000. Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fniah-spnia/pubs/aborig-autoch/stats_profil-eng.php.
- Hoxie, F. (1984). A final promise: The campaign to assimilate the Indians, 1880–1920. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
- Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC). (1990). Laying the foundations of a new on-reserve housing program. Government of Canada.Google Scholar
- Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC). (1996). Guidelines for the development nation housing proposals. Government of Canada.Google Scholar
- Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC). (2000). Aboriginal and northern climate change program. Government of Canada.Google Scholar
- Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC). (2004). Sustainable development strategy 2004–2006—on the right path together: A sustainable future for first nations, Inuit and northern communities. Government of Canada.Google Scholar
- Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC). (2005). First nation housing: Information sheet. Government of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.aincinac.gc.ca/pr/info/info104_e.html.
- Jakubec, L., & Enegland, J. (2004). 2001 census housing series issue 6: Revised aboriginal households. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation Research Division.Google Scholar
- Kendall, J. (2001). Circles of disadvantage: Aboriginal poverty and underdevelopment in Canada. The American Review of Canadian Studies: 31.Google Scholar
- Lawrence, R., & Martin, D. (2001). Moulds, moisture and microbial contamination of First Nations housing in British Columbia, Canada. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 60(2), 150–156.Google Scholar
- Mackin, N. (2004). Nisga’a architecture and landscapes: Ecological wisdom and community-led design. Dissertation, University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
- Marceau-Evans-Johnson Architects and University of Victoria. (2007). Haisla housing study—concept design report. Google Scholar
- Marino, C. (1994). Reservations. In M. B. Davis (Ed.), Native America in the twentieth century (pp. 544–557). New York: Garland.Google Scholar
- Marshall, S. (2005). The land we live on is our home—The ‘Gameti Ko’ project second community-led workshop. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation.Google Scholar
- McHardy, M., & O’Sullivan, E. (2004). First nations community well-being in Canada. Google Scholar
- Meredith, H. (2001). A short history of the native Americans in the United States. Malabar: Kreiger.Google Scholar
- National Aboriginal Health Organization (NAHO). (2006). First nations regional longitudinal health survey (RHS) 2002/03: Report on First Nations’ housing. Google Scholar
- Office of Energy Efficiency. (2005). Prince Albert grand council—a success story. Natural Resources Canada.Google Scholar
- Ouje-Bougoumou Nation. (2006). Ouje-Bougoumou—the place where people gather. Retrieved from http://www.ouje.ca.
- Patterson, L. (2006). Aboriginal roundtable to Kelowna accord: Aboriginal policy negotiations, 2004–2005. Library of Parliament, Government of Canada.Google Scholar
- RCAP (Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples). (1996). Report of the royal commission on aboriginal peoples. Google Scholar
- Statistics Canada. (2008). 2006 census: Analysis series—Aboriginal peoples in Canada in 2006: Inuit, Métis and First Nations, 2006 census: Findings. Government of Canada.Google Scholar
- UN (United Nations Housing Rights Programme). (2005). Report no. 7: Indigenous peoples’ rights to adequate housing. Google Scholar
- Woloshyniuk, G., Pape-Salmon, A., & Marek, T. (2000). Old crow residential energy efficiency project. Pembina Institute.Google Scholar