Work absenteeism following an injury creates an economic burden on society and the individual. Programs encouraging return to work (RTW) should be implemented for high risk populations. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors for duration until RTW following an injury. The Israeli National Trauma Registry and the National Insurance Institute database (2008–2013) were linked. Logistic-regression models tested the probability not RTW within 1 month, 1 year and 2 years among 67% of the population and the quality of the model was examined among 33% of the population. The study population comprised 45,291 casualties (aged 21–67 and employed prior to injury as salaried workers). The majority of the study population (61%) RTW within 1 month from the injury event. Injury severity, multiple injuries, brain injury, traffic related injuries and fall injuries were significantly associated with work absenteeism. A dose–response relationship was found between income and not RTW: the lower the income the greater was the chance of not RTW. Among casualties with occupational injuries the odds for not RTW within a month, a year and 2 years were respectively, 3.7, 2.4 and 2 times significantly greater in comparison with casualties not injured at work. Underprivileged ethnic groups (Arabs and immigrants from Ethiopia) had a greater chance for long out of work stay following an injury. The outcomes of this study identified casualties at high risk for not RTW and enables health professionals to develop intervention programs focusing on returning to a productive lifestyle.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
MacKenzie, E. J., Morris, J. A., Jr., Jurkovich, G. J., et al. (1998). Return to work following injury: The role of economic, social, and job-related factors. American Journal of Public Health,88(11), 1630–1637. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.88.11.1630.
Clay, F. J., Newstead, S. V., Watson, W. L., & McClure, R. J. (2010). Determinants of return to work following non-life-threatening acute orthopaedic trauma: A prospective cohort study. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine,42(2), 162–169.
Lederer, V., & Rivard, M. (2014). Compensation benefits in a population-based cohort of men and women on long-term disability after musculoskeletal injuries: Costs, course, predictors. Occupational and Environmental Medicine,71(11), 772–779.
Sampere, M., Gimeno, D., Serra, C., et al. (2012). Return to work expectations of workers on long-term non-work-related sick leave. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation,22(1), 15–26.
Kendrick, D., Vinogravoda, Y., Coupland, C., Christie, N., Lyons, R. A., & Towner, E. L. (2012). Getting back to work after injury: The UK Burden of injury multicentre longitudinal study. BMC Public Health,12(1), 584.
Berecki-Gisolf, J., Clay, F. J., Collie, A., & McClure, R. J. (2012). Predictors of sustained return to work after work-related injury or disease: Insights from workers’ compensation claims records. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation,22(3), 283–291.
MacKenzie, E. J., Bosse, M. J., Kellam, J. F., et al. (2006). Early predictors of long-term work disability after major limb trauma. Journal of Trauma - Injury, Infection and Critical Care,61(3), 688–694.
Boot, C. R. L., Hogg-Johnson, S., Bültmann, U., Amick, B. C., & van der Beek, A. J. (2014). Differences in predictors for return to work following musculoskeletal injury between workers with and without somatic comorbidities. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health,87(8), 871–879.
He, Y., Hu, J., Yu, I. T. S., Gu, W., & Liang, Y. (2010). Determinants of return to work after occupational injury. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation,20(3), 378–386.
Alexanderson, K. A. E., Borg, K. E., & Hensing, G. K. E. (2005). Sickness absence with low-back, shoulder, or neck diagnoses: an 11-year follow-up regarding gender differences in sickness absence and disability pension. Work,25(2), 115–124.
Vles, W. J., Steyerberg, E. W., Essink-Bot, M. L., Van Beeck, E. F., Meeuwis, J. D., & Leenen, L. P. H. (2005). Prevalence and determinants of disabilities and return to work after major trauma. Journal of Trauma - Injury, Infection and Critical Care,58(1), 126–135.
Lilley, R., Davie, G., Ameratunga, S., & Derrett, S. (2012). Factors predicting work status 3 months after injury: Results from the prospective outcomes of injury study. British Medical Journal Open,2(2), e000400.
National Insurance Contributions. https://www.btl.gov.il/EnglishHomepage/Insurance/NationalInsurance/Pages/default.aspx.
Disability. The National Insurance Institute of Israel. https://www.btl.gov.il/EnglishHomepage/Benefits/DisabilityInsurance/Pages/default.aspx.
Characterization and Classification of Local Authorities by the Socio-Economic Level of the Population. (2008). http://www.cbs.gov.il/reader/newhodaot/tables_template_eng.html?hodaa=201624330.
Goldman, S., Radomislensky, I., & Ziv, A. (2018). The impact of neighborhood socioeconomic disparities on injury. International Journal of Public Health,63, 855–863.
Gennarelli, T. A., & Wodzin, E. (2006). AIS 2005: A contemporary injury scale. Injury,37(12), 1083–1091.
Copes, W. S., Champion, H. R., & Sacco, W. (1988). The Injury Severity Score revisited. Journal of Trauma,28(1), 69–77.
Butcher, N., & Balogh, Z. J. (2012). AIS > 2 in at least two body regions: A potential new anatomical definition of polytrauma. Injury,43(2), 196–199.
Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, M., Razi, E., Sehat, M., & Asadi-Lari, M. (2017). Return to work after trauma: A survival analysis. Chinese Journal of Traumatology - English Ed.,20(2), 67–74.
The Population of Israel. The Israeli Bureau of Statistics. 2018. http://www.cbs.gov.il/reader/?MIval=cw_usr_view_SHTML&ID=629.
Newgard, C. D., Fleischman, R., Choo, E., Ma, O. J., Hedges, J. R., & McConnell, K. J. (2010). Validation of length of hospital stay as a surrogate measure for injury severity and resource use among injury survivors. Academic Emergency Medicine,17(2), 142–150.
Hadjicostas, P. (2006). Maximizing proportions of correct classifications in binary logistic regression maximizing proportions of correct classifications in binary logistic regression. Journal of Applied Statistics,33, 629–640.
Heather G. (2002). Measuring return to work: EBSCOhost. http://web.a.ebscohost.com.op.idm.oclc.org/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=3811f341-0915-43bf-88a6-61933ae41bd4%40sessionmgr4002&vid=1&hid=4206.
Employment Among Israeli Arabs. (2011). Report of The Israel Democracy Institute (IDI). https://en.idi.org.il/articles/10190.
MacKenzie, E. J., Shapiro, S., Smith, R. T., Siegel, J. H., Moody, M., & Pitt, A. (1987). Factors influencing return to work following hospitalization for traumatic injury. American Journal of Public Health,77(3), 329–334.
Clay, F. J., Fitzharris, M., Kerr, E., McClure, R. J., & Watson, W. L. (2012). The association of social functioning, social relationships and the receipt of compensation with time to return to work following unintentional injuries to victorian workers. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation,22(3), 363–375.
Esselman, P. C., Wiechman Askay, S., Carrougher, G. J., et al. (2007). Barriers to return to work after burn injuries. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation,88(12 SUPPL. 2), 50–56.
Zelle, B. A., Panzica, M., Vogt, M. T., Sittaro, N. A., Krettek, C., & Pape, H. C. (2005). Influence of workers’ compensation eligibility upon functional recovery 10 to 28 years after polytrauma. American Journal of Surgery,190(1), 30–36.
Mason, S., Wardrope, J., Turpin, G., & Rowlands, A. (2002). Outcomes after injury: A comparison of workplace and non workplace injury. Journal of Trauma - Injury, Infection and Critical Care,53(1), 98–103.
Lilley, R., Davie, G., Langley, J., Ameratunga, S., & Derrett, S. (2013). Do outcomes differ between work and non-work-related injury in a universal injury compensation system? Findings from the New Zealand prospective outcomes of injury study. BMC Public Health,13(1), 995.
Schnyder, U., Moergeli, H., Ph, D., et al. (2003). Does patient cognition predict time off from work after life-threatening accidents ? American Journal of Psychiatry,160, 2025–2031.
Fenner, P. (2013). Workplace returning to work after an injury Background. Reprinted from Australian Family Physician,42(4), 182–186.
This research was supported in part by the grant of The National Insurance Institute (14302). We wish to thank Prof. Daniel Gottlieb, Deputy Director General of Research and Planning at the National Insurance Institute and Rivka Prior, Director of the Disabilities Research Department at the National Insurance Institute for their valuable support on this project.
Conflict of interest
All authors approve that they do not have any financial and personal relationships with other people, or organizations, that could inappropriately influence (bias) this research and this manuscript.
As identifying information was not available to researchers, none informed consent was needed. This study was approved by following Ethical Committees: Ethical Committee of the Sheba medical center and Ethical Committee of the National Insurance Institute of Israel.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Savitsky, B., Radomislensky, I., Goldman, S. et al. Returning to Work Following an Injury: Practical Usage of a Predictive Model Based on a Nationwide Study. J Community Health 45, 183–193 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-019-00730-w
- Work absenteeism
- Return to work