Prevalence of Substance Abuse (Tobacco, Alcohol, Narcotics and Psychotropic Drugs) and Its Relationship to Family Factors in Pre-university Male Students in Shiraz 2017–2018

  • Ghazanfar Rafiee
  • Jamshid Ahmadi
  • Farkhondeh RafieeEmail author
Original Paper


Teenagers are valuable resources in communities and they are faced with multiple risk factors. Factors such as family attachment, devotion to family, parent’s educational level, and parental support are the protective factors against high-risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of drug use among pre-university students and its relationship with familial factors. 1000 Fourth grade high-school male students were randomly selected during 6 months in four districts of Shiraz City during 2017–2018. 14% of the participants were current smokers, 13.5% had a history of alcohol consumption, and 1% used psychotropic drugs, respectively. Moreover 59% of the participants who had consumed alcohol were cigarette smokers as well. 4.5% of them used all the three substances such as alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic drugs. Children whose parents do not set clear regulations or do not control their children are at higher risk of drug abuse.


Prevalence Substance abuse Family factors Students 



The authors would like to thank all the people who helped to conduct this study. The authors wish to thank Dr. Nasrin Shokrpour and Mr. H. Argasi at the Research Consultation Center (RCC) of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences for his invaluable assistance in editing this manuscript.

Author contributions

GH R as a corresponding author designed the study, conducted the statistical analysis and revised the study critically for important intellectual content. J A wrote the first and final draft of manuscript and interpreted data of the study. F R has been involved in drafting and revising the manuscript and approved the final version of the manuscript.


This study was supported by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Funding support did not have any involvement in submit the article for publication.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

Ethics approval for gathering data was provided from Research Ethics Board of the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

Informed Consent

Before gathering the data, all participants provided written informed consent for participation and publication of this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ghazanfar Rafiee
    • 1
  • Jamshid Ahmadi
    • 2
  • Farkhondeh Rafiee
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Substance Abuse Research Center, Department of Medical and Surgical Nursing, Nursing and Midwifery SchoolShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  2. 2.Substance Abuse Research Center, Department of PsychiatryShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  3. 3.Department of Architecture, Faculty of Fazl, Neyriz BranchTechnical & Vocational UniversityNeyriz, FarsIran

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