Advertisement

The Role of a Community-Based Intervention in Promoting Helmet Use in a Non-probability Sample of Rural Motorcyclists in Iran

  • Towhid Babazadeh
  • Kamiar Kouzekanani
  • Sadegh Ghasemzadeh
  • Hossein Matlabi
  • Hamid AllahverdipourEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Although the use of helmets is known to prevent the majority of mortalities by head injuries, it is ignored by a large number of motorcyclists. The present study was conducted to promote helmet use in an attempt to reduce injuries among motorcyclists in a rural area by adopting a community-based participation approach. The one-group pretest–posttest pre-experimental design was conducted in northwest Iran. The study was conducted in three phases: (1) baseline measurement, (2) implementation of the intervention, and (3) assessment of the outcomes. The intervention included the distribution of learning tools, education of various community groups, tightening of driving laws for offending motorcyclists, promotional programs at community level, and utilizing all opportunities to discuss the benefits of helmets. Due to the non-experimental nature of the study, no causal inferences were drawn. After the intervention, the percentage of the awareness of the benefits of helmet use was increased by 28%, positive attitudes towards benefits of helmet use was increased by 32.6%, and supporting helmet use was increased by 58.6%. Moreover, helmet sale and use increased by 147.0% and 32.0%, respectively. Additionally, motorcycle accidents, head injuries, and mortalities were decreased by 71.8, 55.5, and 60.0%, respectively. Community-based participation approach may positively influence health promoting behaviors and motorcyclists’ decisions to wear helmet in rural areas.

Keywords

Helmet Interventional study Community-based participation Motorcyclists 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors would like to thank all personnel of Health vice-chancellery of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences for their cooperation.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest regarding this study.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Ethical approval to perform the study was obtained from the Ethics Committee in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization. (2015). Motorcycle-related injuries in children in the South-East Asia Region. New Delhi, India: WHO.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moghisi, A., Mohammadi, R., & Svanstrom, L. (2014). Motorcyclists’ safety in Iran: Implication of haddon matrix in safe community setting. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 28, 37.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ketabi, D., et al. (2011). Aberrant behaviors and road accidents among Iranian truck drivers, 2010. Health Promotion Perspectives, 1(2), 130.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    World Health Organization. (2006). FIA Foundation for the Automobile and Society. Helmets: a road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang, J., et al. (2004). Motorcycle ownership and injury in China. Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 11(3), 159–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reddy, N. B., et al. (2014). An epidemiological study on pattern of thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents of Bangalore: Autopsy-based study. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock, 7(2), 116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sudaryo, M. K., et al. (2012). Injury, disability and quality of life after the 2009 earthquake in Padang, Indonesia: A prospective cohort study of adult survivors. Global Health Action, 5(1), 11816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Suriyawongpaisal, P., & Kanchanasut, S. (2003). Road traffic injuries in Thailand: Trends, selected underlying determinants and status of intervention. Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 10(1–2), 95–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nations, U. (2015). Resolution adopted by the General Assembly.General Assembly. Fifty-eighth session Agenda item 160;c 20 November19 [cited 2015Dec14]. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/.
  10. 10.
    Organization, W. H. (2009). Seat-belts and child restraints: a road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners. London, United Kingdom: FIA.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dongo, A., et al. (2013). Motorcycle related injuries among rural dwellers in Irrua. Characteristics and correlates (p. 2013). Nigeria: Emergency Medicine International.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gururaj, G. (2008). Road traffic deaths, injuries and disabilities in India: Current scenario. National Medical Journal of India, 21(1), 14.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ramli, R., et al. (2014). The effect of motorcycle helmet type, components and fixation status on facial injury in Klang Valley, Malaysia: A case control study. BMC Emergency Medicine, 14(1), 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Singh, D. D. (2014). Effects of “Use helmet” campaign and helmet laws on helmet use among college students in India. European Academic Research, 2(1), 2823–2838.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Njå, O., & Nesvåg, S. M. (2007). Traffic behaviour among adolescents using mopeds and light motorcycles. Journal of Safety Research, 38(4), 481–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Germeni, E., et al. (2009). Understanding reasons for non-compliance in motorcycle helmet use among adolescents in Greece. Injury Prevention, 15(1), 19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Robertson, D. W., Lang, B. D., & Schaefer, J. M. (2014). Parental attitudes and behaviours concerning helmet use in childhood activities: Rural focus group interviews. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 70, 314–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ranney, M. L., et al. (2010). Correlates of motorcycle helmet use among recent graduates of a motorcycle training course. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42(6), 2057–2062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ardakani, M. A. (2007). Community-based initiatives and their relation to poverty reduction and health development: Experiences in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 13(6), 1243.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Suwannapong, N., et al. (2014). Effect of community participation on household environment to mitigate dengue transmission in Thailand. Tropical Biomedicine, 31(1), 149–158.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thompson, S., Watson, M., & Tilford, S. (2018). The Ottawa Charter 30 years on: Still an important standard for health promotion. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 56(2), 73–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chaulagai, C. N. (1993). Community health volunteer (Vol. 14, pp. 16–19). Geneva: World Health Forum.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Servadei, F., et al. (2003). Effect of Italy’s motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries. Injury Prevention, 9(3), 257–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Spinks, A., et al. (2005). Community-based programmes to promote use of bicycle helmets in children aged 0–14 years: A systematic review. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 12(3), 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ramouz, A., Hosseini, M., & Vahdati, S. S. (2016). Epidemiology of head and neck fractures caused by motorcycle accidents. Iranian Journal of Emergency Medicine, 3(1), 23–27.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ali, M., et al. (2011). Determinants of helmet use behaviour among employed motorcycle riders in Yazd, Iran based on theory of planned behaviour. Injury, 42(9), 864–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ghasemzadeh, S., et al. (2017). Cognitive-behavioral determinants of using helmet by motorcyclists in a rural community. Journal of Transport & Health, 6, 548–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Babazadeh, T., et al. (2017). Lessons learnt from pilot field test of a comprehensive advocacy program to support health promoting schools’ project in Iran. Health Promotion Perspectives, 7(1), 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Goodkind, J. R. (2005). Effectiveness of a community-based advocacy and learning program for hmong refugees. American Journal of Community Psychology, 36(3–4), 387–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bonander, C., Andersson, R., & Nilson, F. (2015). The effect of stricter licensing on road traffic injury events involving 15 to 17-year-old moped drivers in Sweden: A time series intervention study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 83, 154–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gresham, L. S., et al. (2001). Partnering for injury prevention: evaluation of a curriculum-based intervention program among elementary school children. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 16(2), 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Quine, L., Rutter, D. R., & Arnold, L. (2001). Persuading school-age cyclists to use safety helmets: Effectiveness of an intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology, 6(4), 327–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mohammadi Zeidi, I., Pakpor, A., & Mohammadi Zeidi, B. (2013). The effect of an educational intervention based on the theory of planned behavior to improve safety climate. Iran Occupational Health, 9(4), 30–40.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Blue, C. L. (2007). Does the theory of planned behavior identify diabetes-related cognitions for intention to be physically active and eat a healthy diet? Public Health Nursing, 24(2), 141–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Omondi, D., et al. (2010). Understanding physical activity behavior of type 2 diabetics using the theory of planned behavior and structural equation modeling. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 5, 160–167.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ramezankhani, A., et al. (2014). Effects of an educational intervention based on planned behavior theory in promoting safe behaviors crossing the street in students. Journal of Health System Research, 2000–2010.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brijs, K., et al. (2014). Psychological determinants of motorcycle helmet use among young adults in Cambodia. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 26, 273–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fuentes, C., et al. (2010). Expectations of efficacy, social influence and age as predictors of helmet-use in a sample of Spanish adolescents. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 13(5), 289–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Layba, C., et al. (2017). Adolescent motor vehicle crash prevention through a trauma center—based intervention program. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 83(5), 850–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kaushik, R., et al. (2015). Pediatric bicycle-related head injuries: A population-based study in a county without a helmet law. Injury Epidemiology, 2(1), 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vriend, I., et al. (2018). Effectiveness of a nationwide intervention to increase helmet use in Dutch skiers and snowboarders: An observational cohort study. Injury Prevention, 24(3), 205–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gupta, S., et al. (2018). Impact of helmet use on traumatic brain injury from road traffic accidents in Cambodia. Traffic Injury Prevention, 19(1), 66–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Public HealthSarab Faculty of Medical SciencesSarabIran
  2. 2.College of Education & Human DevelopmentTAMUCCCorpus ChristiUSA
  3. 3.Department of Health Education & PromotionTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  4. 4.Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health SciencesTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  5. 5.Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Department of Health Education and PromotionTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

Personalised recommendations