The Role of a Community-Based Intervention in Promoting Helmet Use in a Non-probability Sample of Rural Motorcyclists in Iran

  • Towhid Babazadeh
  • Kamiar Kouzekanani
  • Sadegh Ghasemzadeh
  • Hossein Matlabi
  • Hamid AllahverdipourEmail author
Original Paper


Although the use of helmets is known to prevent the majority of mortalities by head injuries, it is ignored by a large number of motorcyclists. The present study was conducted to promote helmet use in an attempt to reduce injuries among motorcyclists in a rural area by adopting a community-based participation approach. The one-group pretest–posttest pre-experimental design was conducted in northwest Iran. The study was conducted in three phases: (1) baseline measurement, (2) implementation of the intervention, and (3) assessment of the outcomes. The intervention included the distribution of learning tools, education of various community groups, tightening of driving laws for offending motorcyclists, promotional programs at community level, and utilizing all opportunities to discuss the benefits of helmets. Due to the non-experimental nature of the study, no causal inferences were drawn. After the intervention, the percentage of the awareness of the benefits of helmet use was increased by 28%, positive attitudes towards benefits of helmet use was increased by 32.6%, and supporting helmet use was increased by 58.6%. Moreover, helmet sale and use increased by 147.0% and 32.0%, respectively. Additionally, motorcycle accidents, head injuries, and mortalities were decreased by 71.8, 55.5, and 60.0%, respectively. Community-based participation approach may positively influence health promoting behaviors and motorcyclists’ decisions to wear helmet in rural areas.


Helmet Interventional study Community-based participation Motorcyclists 



Authors would like to thank all personnel of Health vice-chancellery of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences for their cooperation.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest regarding this study.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Ethical approval to perform the study was obtained from the Ethics Committee in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Public HealthSarab Faculty of Medical SciencesSarabIran
  2. 2.College of Education & Human DevelopmentTAMUCCCorpus ChristiUSA
  3. 3.Department of Health Education & PromotionTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  4. 4.Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health SciencesTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  5. 5.Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Department of Health Education and PromotionTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

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