Risk Factors for Recurrent Injuries from Physical Violence Among African Men in The Gambia
While men are known to be at high risk of recurrent injuries from physical violence, the risk factors in African men have not been investigated. We conducted a matched case-control study to identify factors associated with recurrent injuries from physical violence in The Gambia. Eligible participants were injured male patients aged ≥ 15 years. Over the 12-month study period, 257 cases with recurrent injuries from physical violence, and 257 control patients each from two control groups (violence controls and nonviolence controls) were recruited from eight emergency rooms located in six districts of the Greater Banjul Metropolitan Area, The Gambia. The two control groups matched cases at the same health facility, date of injury, and age, in which violence controls (VCs) experienced only one violence-related injury in the past 12 months and nonviolence controls (NCs) experienced no violence-related injuries. Results of the multivariable conditional logistic regression showed that for both the VC and NC groups, a polygamous family (ORVC, 3.62; ORNC, 2.79), > 8 family members (ORVC, 5.60; ORNC, 4.81), being brought up by a family relative (ORVC, 5.17; ORNC, 2.11), having smoked cigarettes in the past week (ORVC, 3.53; ORNC, 4.03), and perceiving no family support (ORVC, 1.12; ORNC, 1.19) were significantly associated with the occurrence of recurrent violent injuries. Furthermore, compared to the NCs, three additional factors of > 2 male siblings (ORNC, 1.84), low household income (ORNC, 3.11), and alcohol consumption in the past week (ORNC, 4.66) were significantly associated with the occurrence of recurrent violent injuries. These findings may fill in a knowledge gap that will be beneficial for developing effective intervention programs to reduce recurrent injuries from physical violence among African men.
KeywordsEmergency room Men Risk factors Recurrent injuries Physical violence
This work was supported by Taipei Medical University and Taipei Medical University Hospital (106TMU-TMUH-08) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST106-2314-B-038-046-MY3 and MOST105-2627-M-038-001), Taiwan.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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