Journal of Community Health

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 121–126 | Cite as

Moderators of Establishing a Smoke-Free Home: Pooled Data from Three Randomized Controlled Trials of a Brief Intervention

  • Michelle C. KeglerEmail author
  • Regine Haardörfer
  • Lucja T. Bundy
  • Cam Escoffery
  • Rebecca S. Williams
  • Mel Hovell
  • Matthew Kreuter
  • Patricia Dolan Mullen
Original Paper


Interventions to create smoke-free homes typically focus on parents, involve multiple counseling sessions and blend cessation and smoke-free home messages. Smoke-Free Homes: Some Things are Better Outside is a minimal intervention focused on smokers and nonsmokers who allow smoking in the home, and emphasizes creation of a smoke-free home over cessation. The purpose of this study is to conduct moderator analyses using pooled data from three randomized controlled trials of the intervention conducted in collaboration with 2-1-1 contact centers in Atlanta, North Carolina and Houston. 2-1-1 is a strategic partner for tobacco control as it connects over 15 million clients, largely socio-economically disadvantaged, to social and health resources each year. A total of 1506 2-1-1 callers participated across the three intervention trials. Outcomes from 6 months intent-to-treat analyses were used to examine whether sociodemographic variables and smoking-related characteristics moderated effectiveness of the intervention in establishing full home smoking bans. Intervention effectiveness was not moderated by race/ethnicity, education, income, children in the home or number of smokers in the home. Smoking status of the participant, however, did moderate program effectiveness, as did time to first cigarette. Number of cigarettes per day and daily versus nondaily smoking did not moderate intervention effectiveness. Overall, the intervention was effective across socio-demographic groups and was effective without respect to daily versus nondaily smoking or number of cigarettes smoked per day, although smoking status and level of nicotine dependence did influence effectiveness.


Moderators Secondhand smoke Intervention Tobacco control 



This publication was supported by Grant Number U01CA154282 from the National Cancer Institute.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Emory Prevention Research Center, Rollins School of Public HealthEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer CenterUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Center for Behavioral Epidemiology and Community Health, Graduate School of Public HealthSan Diego State UniversityLa MesaUSA
  4. 4.George Warren Brown School of Social WorkWashington UniversitySt. LouisUSA
  5. 5.University of Texas School of Public HealthHoustonUSA

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